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1

Humanism

14-17th C movement in Italy but then all Lat West
->it was the renaissance movement
->actor's category, they themselves thought it

Embrace of classical values - Greeks, Romans
->emulate them
->by this time, Phil was highest form, theology top of political power
->intellectual freedom of Humans, not Religion first
->Humanism was an effect, not a cause of this
->liked Greek, Romans unencumbered
->treated knowledge like the Romans did

Literary - e.g. Galileo wrote like Aristotle
Universities focused on realities of Human Condition
->not abstract otherwordly stuff

Mass education, not just in Uni! The printing press!
->wide education, intellectualism
->people would dabble in many fields
->publish Columbus' tales, and religion

Protestant revolution
->hard copies of bible available
->alternative theories explode
->people reject Catholic doctrine & Vatican
->focus on better articulating or rebutting Cath doctr

2

Copernicus

Poland's Hero - HELIOCENTRISM
->clerical post in church
->Canon law
->just another bureaucrat, not authority
->but he became famous by word of mouth

Publishes LITTLE COMMENTARY
->had to be pushed to publish
->by the Church! Pope offered to finance more

Heliocentrism well received, but just interesting
->especially by church, since Julian calendar had 10 days error by 16th C

JUST A HANDY TOOL FOR PREDICTION TABLES
->eclipses, equinox very accurate

20 Years Later, Publishes De Rev
->On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
->entrusted friend "Hereticus" to do it
->who passes on to Osiander
->who puts in the dick foreward that it's just a calculation tool without saying who wrote it
->not done until 1533, year of his death

Heliocentrism not new, but Copernicus first to believe
->for a Humanist, it was mathematical beauty
->reason enough
->but he couldn't give an explanation for others
->still lots of epicycles, due to circular orbits
->no better observations than Ptolemy

Geo-kinetic! Earth not only not centre, also moving and rotating!
Stellar Parallax:
->shouldn't the stars and planets appear different as the Earth moves so much?
->didn't expect distances so big

At time Positional Astronomy more popular
->as opposed to Physical Astronomy
->so Copernicus was taken as useful at time

3

Tycho Brahe

Danish nobility
->had an island for Astronomy
->used the Quadrant, big protractor
->made huge one you can sit in, makes observations

Realises Arist, Ptolemy are wrong!

1) 1572, a bright new star in Cassiopeia!
->can be change in Celestial realm

2) Two bright comets
->couldn't be meteors in atmosphere
->beyond sphere of moon
->they should have smashed Mars' crystalline sphere!

Thought moving Earth (Copernicus) absurd.

TYCHONIC SYSTEM:
->Earth @ center
->moon, sun orbit earth
->everything orbits Sun

4

Kepler

A Neoplatist, pythagorean
->better understand harmony, understand God
->6 planets because you can place each shape inside each other, and get platonic solids (icosahedron...)

Tycho said Kepler's work could only be verified by his observations
->then only gave him Mars

3 Laws:
1) Ellipses, sun @ a foci
->not circular, but Tycho already said not perfect
2)Area Time
3) Harmonic Relations
->saw "Harmonies of the World"
->"music of the spheres"
->harmonies of stars influenced Earth, we mimic god with music

He just wasn't "Scientific" as we think today.

5

Galileo

The patron master.
->New physics of motion

Improved + produced military compasses & telescopes