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1

Newton in Europe

In England, Newton was a Rockstar
->sent by God, he'd seen God's mind

But EU, Descartes & M.P. prevailed
->Europe's Einstein, he just had it right!
->also a good methodologist

Most hate because Occult forces
->he just feigned no hypothesies
->indirect attack on Descartes - I know I can't prove it, how do you know about the micro screws?
->Descartes' celestial bodies (vortices) could never align with Kepler

Slowly builds support:
->Voltaire publishes on him
->"World blind before Kepler, but Newton had 2 eyes"
->slowly became popular - you need people to champion your beliefs for you for them to spread

2

Newtonian Physics

People started using Newtonianism everywhere!
->Algoratti's "Newton for Ladies"
->try to make framework for morality, politics...
->banned by Church, science can't do that!

Thought Newtonianism could do anything, but it can be hard to establish initial conditions
->the "Three Body Problem"

Perihelion of Mercury couldn't be explained, but Moon and Tides could.
->cut through 100's of problems

3

Newtonian Astronomy

Unknown G in Uni Grav
->finally Cavendish at Cambridge finds it

Reflecting Telescope?
->Herschel builds giant 20ft one, finds Uranus
->and theoretically finds Neptune after noticing anomaly in orbig

4

Newtonian Chemistry - Priestley

Joseph Priestley
->interested in pneumatic chemistry (air)
->phlogiston theory
->air is a single substance
->but could be mixed, e.g. throw dust into i
->heretic, opponent of the crown
Two airs:
1)Fixed (No or CO2, he eventually differentiated them)
2) Dephlogisticated air (O2)

Saw their effects on plants, fire, calcification
->assume lungs put phlogiston into air
->flames burning with us
->plants feed on phlogiston

Denied O2 theory

5

Newtonian Chemistry - Lavoisier

Antoine Lavoisier
->and his cropped wife who did translations, ideas
->promoted self as Newtonian chemist

Problems with Phlogiston:
->weights of air?
->adding phlogiston might decrease metal's weight
->metals are compounds in phlogiston theory, but heating changes weights?

Lavoisier reformed chemistry
->air is a mix, can be isolated
->renamed many things so common language
->e.g. "element" anything you can't subdivide
->chalk, light, caloric (heat)
->tentative because someone might break them someday
->dephlogisticated into oxygen
->oxygen = "acid former", though he knew about HCl

Neither O2 or Phlog were established correct.

Heating iron ore -> iron metal
->and iron ore is heavier

Phlogistan:
->iron ore is element, iron is compound of phlogistan and iron element
->phlogistan has metallic properties, gives them
->"chemical affinity" today

O2:
->iron is element, since heating the iron ore releases oxygen, purifying it, making it lighter!
->but can't explain universal similarity between metals

Lavoisier emphasized exact measurements, since Phlogistan couldn't explain loss of weight.

->he pushed CoM as Newtonian way, even though Newton never talked about the CoM

6

Newtonian Electrostatics

Ancients knew static electricity
->rubbing amber
->usually artificial magnets, no explanation
->Thales though it was neat
->by 1600, William Gilbert coins "electricity", shows it's not like magnetism (but working with static)

19th C, start with electrostatics
->electrical charges in motion

The Voltaic Pile (primitive battery)
->Galvani thought living matter was source of electricity
->Volta disproved with his pile
->copper/zinc, brine sponge sandwich
->replaced Leyden jar
->discharge over time, gives current
->current lets you study circuits!

Coulomb's Law:
->by being similar to Neweton, accepted without proof
->just description of phenomena
->by 1800, description without explanation accepted

7

Newtonianism by 1800

Unlike Scholasticism, say what w/o explanation or proof

Newton is a new page in science
->don't worry about Arist, Ancients

Newton was chasing the Ancients though
->while everyone else stood on Newton


19th C, through Kelvin, Helmholtz
->start of Energy and conversion between them
->CoE
->lets you deny vital forces

Newton was trained in the Scholastic method
->but he had Nature as his master
->300 years of Scholasticism taught people how to ask questions