Lecture 3: Aristotle Flashcards Preview

Scientific Revolutions I > Lecture 3: Aristotle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 3: Aristotle Deck (7)
Loading flashcards...
1

Timaeus

Natural Philosophy, origin of world and contents
->but also goes into Athens vs Atlantis
->how to live a good life, build good society
->harmony through society, law
->creation of the word by Demiurge

2

Pythagoreans

Seek harmony in their school; ALL IS NUMBER
->like a math cult, secret knowledge, no beans
->numbers perfect unlike reality
->principle of math = principle of nature
->good ratios = good harmony

"God made the world the way number measure"

4 = MAGIC NUMBER
->1+2+3+4 = 10, 10 is a perfect number

First mathematical proof of c^2=... by rearrangement
->not just certain whole numbers

3

Socrates, Origin of the world?

World built by a god (Diurge)
->not some all powerful omnipotent god
->one among other eternal elements (e.g. the forms)
->doesn't create from nothing

In the beginning, world was formless
->void unformed matter
->God attempted to build using forms as blueprints
->matter fights, isn't good enough to take the forms
->first forms triangles, square, pentagon... then builds

5 Perfect Shapes:
->Tetrahedron = fire (b/c pointy like fire)
->Cube = Earth, stable
->Icosahedron = Water, like a ball
->Dodecahedron = Aether
->Octahedron = Air

Everything based in trainges -> convertable!
->disassemble and recombine
->to make more complex forms
->THIS IS WHAT THE DIURGE DOES TO CREATE THE WORLD

4

Plato's Academy

The first real school
->of philosophy, not guilds or religion
->learn HOW TO STUDY the world
->near Hecademus, a field area
->patron god Athena

Entranceway: Let no one ignorant of math enter
->can't learn anything without math

TRUTH VS WHAT IS IN FRONT OF US

THREE VALUES:
->Knowledge of Universal > Particulars
->Knowledge of Definite Structure > Vague structures
->True Knowledge is as things IDEALLY are

E.g. Universal graviation
->true for any two bodies
->ideal situation you'd never see

5

Aristotle: History and contribution?

"THE Philosopher", "The Father of Science"
->studied under Plato, but more into N. Phil
->focused more on teaching vs talking
->Presocratics had the right idea, but lacked method
->Father of Science b/c realised it was about figuring it all out together

Methodologist
->wanted to share method
->wrote treatise on Minerology, etc

6

Aristotle: Origin of the world?

HYLE, "prime matter"
->unknowable, never exists without taking form
->no voids, because matter fills everything
->only becomes by imprinting of form
->wax and seal

First: imprint to EWFW
->then these are recombined into e.g. metal
->then those ercombine e.g. house

FOR AN OBJECT TO BE SOMETHING, FOR US TO HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF IT, IT MUST HAVE MATTER + FORM

HYLOMORPHISM: matter + form
a)Parmenides: Things come from nothing!
->hyle is eternal
b)Heraclitus: All changing
->forms imprint and reimprint constantly

7

Explain why things happen a la Aristotle

To understand, you must understand all the causes.
E.g. a house:

1)Formal: qualities impressed on it = roof on top...
2)Material: matter taking on forms = bricks, mortar...
3)Efficient: Effort putting form -> matter = workers
4) Final: Purpose, why does it exist = provide shelter

Final cause = Natural Motion
-Real purpose only exists in natural world
->artificial objects don't actualize own motion
->You can interfere with natural motion!
->e.g. holding dirt, not letting it return to earth

Everything is alive.
->life needs no explanation
->arrow falls? physical world to be explained by natural world
->wheras for us physics is matter in motion, the ultimate explanation for all other science. Natural world must be explained by the physical.