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Flashcards in Ideology And Science Deck (51)
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1

Why does society have faith in science?

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2

Why has society's faith in society started to fail?

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3

Briefly explain what is meant by the 'cognitive power' of science.

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4

According to Popper, in what way is science an open belief system?

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5

Briefly explain what is meant by 'the principle of falsificationism'.

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6

What is meant by science being culmulative?

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7

According to Popper, what prevents scientific knowledge from being sacred or absolute truth?

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8

According to Merton, who first supported scientific thinking?

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9

Briefly outline the 'CUDOS' norms that Merton states makes scientists act in ways that serve the goal of increasing scientific knowledge.

- Communism:

- Universalism

- Disinterestedness

- Organised Scepticism

10

What makes religion a closed belief system?

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11

What prevents a closed belief system from being disproved?

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12

Use an example to illustrate how the Azande explain misfortune.

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13

How do the Azande deal with a suspected witch?

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14

According to Evans-Pritchard, what three functions does the Azande belief system perform?

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15

What prevents the Azande from questioning the belief system?

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16

Briefly explain each of the three devices for sustaining belief systems that Polanyi identifies.

- Circularity:

- Subsidiary explanations

- Denial of legitimacy to rivals

17

According to Polanyi, in what way is science a closed belief system?

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18

Explain what Kuhn means by a paradigm.

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19

According to Kuhn, what is normal science?

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20

What happens to those scientists who challenge the paradigm?

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21

According to Kuhn, when does a scientific revolution take place?

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22

Briefly explain what interpretivists mean by 'social construction'.

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23

According to Knorr-Cetina, how is sicence able to 'fabricate' new facts and how does she view the laboratory setting?

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24

How does the example of 'little green men' illustrate the fact that scientists are engaged in the process of interpreting the world?

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25

Briefly explain how each of these perspectives views science:
- Marxism
- Feminism
- Postmodernism

- Marxism:

- Feminism:

- Postmodernism:

26

Define ideology

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27

What are the four negative aspects of the meaning of the term ideology in sociology?

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28

Why is it inworkers' interests to overthrow capitalism?

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29

What is meant by class consciousness?

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30

Define ruling-class ideology.

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