Objectivity and Values In Sociology Flashcards Preview

A2 Sociology > Objectivity and Values In Sociology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Objectivity and Values In Sociology Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Outline the three views of whether it is possible or desirable to keep values out of research.

- Some argue that it's both possible and desirable to keep subjective values out of research to produce true, scientific knowledge about society.

- Others argue that, because sociologists are humans (with values) studying other humans (with values), it is impossible to keep personal values out of one's research.

- Some go further, arguing that it's actually desirable for sociologists to use their values to improve society through their work.

2

According to the early positivists' modernist view, what was the job of sociology? What benefit would this bring?

Sociology's job was to discover the truth about how society works, uncovering the laws that govern its proper functioning. Equipped with this knowledge, social problems could be solved and human life improved.

3

In what way was the role of sociologists crucial?

By discovering the truth about about how society worked, sociologists would be able to say objectively and with scientific certainty what was really best for society.

4

Briefly explain in what way Marx's views are similar to those of Comte and Durkheim.

.

5

Using an example, explain the distinction made by Weber between value judgements and facts.

.

6

Briefly explain Weber's views on the role of values in the following stages of the research process:
- Values as a guide to research
- Data collection and hypothesis testing

.

7

Briefly explain Weber's views on the role of values in the following stages of the research process:
- Values in the interpretation of data
- Values and the sociologist as a citizen

.

8

What is meant by 'committed sociology'?

.

9

Briefly explain why modern positivists say research should be morally neutral. Why is this view criticised?

.

10

Using the distinction between 'problem makers' and 'problem takers', explain what Gouldner means when he says that sociologists had become mere 'spiritless technicians' by the 1950s?

.

11

According to Gouldner, what is the effect of sociologists leaving their own values behind?

.

12

Briefly outline Myrdal's views on values in research.

.

13

According to Gouldner, why is value-free sociology impossible?

.

14

According to Gouldner, why is value-free sociology undesirable?

.

15

According to Becker, why should sociologists take the side of the underdog?

.

16

Briefly outline Goffman's example of how we should study mental patients. How does this illustrate Becker's views?

.

17

Briefly explain why interactions favour qualitative methods of research.

.

18

Briefly explain Gouldner's criticism of Becker.

.

19

According to Gouldner, what should sociology be committed to doing?

.

20

Briefly explain why sociologists' work is likely to embody the values and interests of those who fund it.

.

21

In what ways might sociologists' concern with their careers influence their research?

.

22

Briefly outline the values and assumptions of feminism.

.

23

Briefly outline the values and assumptions of functionalism.

.

24

Briefly outline the values and assumptions of Marxism.

.

25

Use an example to illustrate the link between a sociologist's choice of method and their value-stance.

.

26

Briefly outline the two arguments of relativism.

-
-

27

Briefly explain how relativism views truth.

.

28

According to postmodernism, why does no perspective have any special claim to be true?

.

29

Briefly explain why relativism is self-defeating.

.