Chapter 7: The Physical Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: The Physical Environment Deck (28)
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1

Transactionalism

(Environment)

People shape their environment just as the physical environment influences them.

2

Stimulation theory

(Environment)

Focuses on the physical environment as a source of sensory information that is essential for human well-being.

(ie color, heat, light)

Stimulation theorists propose that patterns of stimulation influence thinking, feeling, social interaction, and health.

3

Stimulus overload

Too much stimulation

Has a negative effect on human behavior.

4

Restricted environment stimulation

Stimulus derivation.

Negative effect on human behavior.

5

Control theories

(Environment)

Focuses on the issue of how much control we have over our physical environments and the attempts we make to gain control.

6

Boundary regulating mechanisms

Use to gain greater control over our physical environments.

(Privacy, personal space, territoriality)

7

Personal space

Physical distance we choose to maintain in interpersonal relationships.

8

Behavior setting theories

(Environment)

Behavior is always tied to a specific place.

Consistent, uniform patterns of behavior occur in particular settings.

Behaviors of different persons in the same setting are more similar than the behaviors of the same person in different settings.

9

Territoriality

Behavior of individuals and small groups as they seek control over physical space.

10

Primary territory

Evokes feelings of ownership that we control on a relatively permanent basis.

11

Secondary territories

Less important territories and control of them does not seem as important.

12

Public territories

Open to anyone in the community and we generally do not try to control them.

13

Crowding

The subjective feeling of having too many people around.

14

Programs

Consistent, prescribed patterns of behavior.

15

Behavior settings theory:

Staffing

Different behavior settings attract different numbers of participants or staff.

16

Natural environment

The portion of the environment influenced primarily be geological and nonhuman biological factors.

17

Biophilia

Humans genetically based need to affiliate with nature.

18

Three features of the environment that have been found to be particularly influential on emotional states:

Water, trees, sunlight.

19

Cultural models of nature-human relationship:

Spiritual model

Sees nature as sacred in its own right and threatened by human activity.

20

Cultural model of nature-human relationship:

Ecological model

Based on science, sees humans as interconnected with nature, and looks to science and technology to improve that relationship.

21

Built environment

Portion of the physical environment attributable solely to human effort.

22

Sociofugal spaces

Physical designs that discourage social interaction.

23

Sociopetal spaces

Physical designs that encourage social interactions.

24

Normalizing principle

(Environment)

Emphasizes the importance of a homelike physical environment.

25

Theory of defensible space

Suggests that residential crime and fear of crime can be decreased by means of certain features that increase residents send of territoriality.

26

Place attachment

Process in which people and groups form bonds with places.

27

Place identity

When a particular place becomes an important part of our self-identity.

28

Social model of disability

Disability is the result of the relationship between individual and the environment.