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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Culture Deck (23)
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1

Culture

Includes multiple lovers of traditions, values, and beliefs, as well as social, biological, and natural acts.

Includes both behavior and the material outcomes of that behavior (artifact or the things we construct from the material world around us- such as houses, clothing, cars, nuclear weapons, jets, and the like).

2

Cultural relativism

Differences in culture reflect different frameworks of meaning and understanding and thus result in different lifestyles and ways of living.

3

Biological determinism

The attempt to differentiate social behavior on the basis of biological genetic endowment.

4

Postmodernism (culture)

Describes contemporary culture. Suggests that global electronic communications are the foundation of postmodern culture, exposing people in advanced capital societies to media images that allow them to splice together cultural elements from different places and times.

5

Ideology

The dominant ideas about the way things are and should work.

6

Ethnocentrism

Elevation of own ethnic group and its social and cultural processes over others.

7

Cultural symbols

Something verbal or nonverbal that comes to stand for something else.

8

Worldview and ethos

Worldview: an idea of reality.

Ethos: tone and character and quality of people’s life, it’s moral and aesthetic style and mood.

9

Cultural innovation

The process of culture adapting, modifying, and changing through interactions over time.

10

Cultural conflict

Conflict over meaning of cultural symbols. One things means one to one person and something different to another.

11

Culture of povert

Originally used to bring attention to the way of life developed by poor people to adapt to the difficult circumstances of their lives.

12

Practice orientations

Seeks to explain how, through culture, human beings construct meaning, intentionality, and public behavior.

Seeks to explain how human beings produce systematic cultural change or adapt to and maintain the culture.

13

Cultural Hegemony

Dominance of a particular way of seeing the world.

14

Traditions

Cultural beliefs and practices taken for granted that seem inevitable parts of life.

15

Customs, or cultural practices

Come into being and persist as solutions to problems of living.

16

Assimilation (cultural change)

Process in which the cultural uniqueness of the minority’s is abandoned and its members try to blend invisibly into the continent culture.

17

Accommodation (cultural change)

More common than assimilation in multicultural, multiethnic society in the US. Accommodation is the process of partial or selective cultural change.

18

Acculturation (cultural change)

Mutual sharing of culture.

19

Biocultural socialization (cultural change)

Involves nonmajority group or or member mastering both dominant culture and their own.

20

Race (culture)

System of social identity.

21

Racism

Thinking and acting as if phenotypes (aka genes) and these other capacities are related and imply inferiority or superiority.

22

Ethnic identity

How ethnic groups define themselves and maintain meaning for living individually and as a group.

23

Socioeconomic status

Social class is a way of ascribing status, prestige, and power. It is based on education, income, and occupation.