Chapter 4: The Psychological Person Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: The Psychological Person Deck (46)
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1

Psychology

Defined as mind and mental process.

2

Cognition

Our conscious or preconscious thinking process.

3

Emotion

Appraisal of stimulus, by changing body sensations, and by displays of expressive gestures.

4

Affect

Psychological manifestations of feelings.

5

Unconscious feelings

Of which we are not aware but which influence our behavior.

6

Mood

A feeling disposition that is more stable than emotion, less intense, and less tied to a specific situation.

7

Schema

An internalized representation of the world or an ingrained and systematic pattern of thought, action, and problem solving.

8

Assimilation

Responding to experiences based on existing schema.

9

Accommodation

Changing schema when new situations cannot be incorporated within an existing on.

10

Cognitive operations

To use abstract thoughts and ideas that are not tied to situational sensory and motor information.

11

Information processing theory

We receive stimulation from the outside and code it with sensory reception in the nervous system. The information is first represented in some set of brain activities and then integrated (by accommodation it assimilation) and stored for purposes of present and future adaptation to the environment.

12

Piaget’s stages of cognitive operations:

Sensorimotor stage (birth-2)

infant is egocentric and begins to sense objects existing apart from self.

13

Piaget’s stages of cognitive operations:

Preoperational stage (2-7)

Child remains primarily egocentric but discovers rules that be be applied to new incoming information. The child tends to overgeneralize rules, however, and thus makes many cognitive errors.

14

Piaget’s stages of cognitive operations:

Concrete operations (7-11)

The child can solve concrete problems through the application of logical problem-solving strategies.

15

Piaget’s stages of cognitive operations:

Formal operations stage (11-adulthood)

The person becomes able to solve real and hypothetical problems using abstract concepts.

16

Social learning theory

We are motivated by nature to experience pleasure and avoid pain.

17

Modeling

Behavior is also acquired by witnessing how the actions of others are reinforced.

18

Cognitive mediation

The space/thinking that social learning theorists believe happens between the occurrence of a stimulus and our response.

19

Multiple intelligences

In this theory the brain is understood not as a single cognitive system but as a central unit of neurological functioning that houses relatively separate cognitive facilities.

20

Kohlberg’s stages of moral development:

Preconventional morality

Child’s primary motivation is to avoid punishment and receive immediate rewards.

21

Kohlberg’s stages of moral development:

Conventional morality

Emphasizes adherence to social rules.

A person at this level of morality might be very troubled by circumstances that make her or him different from other people.

Many people never more on past this level.

22

Kohlberg’s stages of moral development:

Postconventional morality

Characterized by a concern with moral principals transcending those of their own society.

23

Cognitive theory

We developed mental schemata, or general processing rules that become enduring, from past experiences. These schemata discriminate and code stimuli, evaluate experiences and make judgements.

24

Cognitive error:

Absolute thinking

Viewing all experience as all good or all bad and failing to understand it can be a mixture of both.

25

Cognitive error:

Overgeneralization

Assuming that deficiencies in one area of life necessarily imply deficiencies other areas.

26

Cognitive error:

Selective abstraction

Focusing only on the negative aspects of a solution and consequently overlooking its positive aspects.

27

Cognitive error:

Arbitrary interference

Reaching a negative conclusion about a situation with insufficient evidence.

28

Cognitive error:

Magnification

Creating large problems out of small ones.

29

Cognitive error:

Minimization

Making large problems small and this not dealing adequately with them.

30

Cognitive error:

Personalization

Accepting blame for negative events without sufficient evidence.