Chapter 13: Communities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Communities Deck (27)
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1

Sense of community

The perception of similarity with others.

2

Community (sociological literature)

Linked by geographic or webs of communication. Common ties. Interaction.

3

Community (psychology literature)

Similarity with others. Interdependence. Mutual exchange to fulfill needs. Sense of belonging.

4

Relational community

Voluntary interaction

5

Territorial community

Based on geography.

6

Transnational community

Feeling of global community. Made by transnational families. Draw support from common ties but does not include much interaction.

7

Mass society

Standardized and homogenized—a society that has no ethics, class, local variations in human behavior.

8

Gemeinschaft

Strong identification with community.

Authority based on tradition.

Relationships based on emotionalism.

Others seen as whole person.

9

Gesellschaft

Impersonal and contractual.

Little identification with community.

Authority based on laws and rationality.

Relationships based on goal attainment and emotional neutrality.

Others seem as role enactors.

10

Contrasting community types:

Community lost

Communities have no sense of connectedness, social support, and traditional customs for behaviors.

11

Contrasting community types:

Community saved

Communities that have retained a strong sense of connectedness, social support, and customs for behavior.

12

Contrasting community types:

Community liberated

Communities that are loosely knit, with unclear boundaries and great deal of heterogeneity.

13

Geographic information system (GIS)

Computer technology which can map spatial distribution of a variety of social data.

14

Community interactions:

Horizontal linkage

Interactions with other members of the community.

15

Community interactions:

Vertical linkage

Interactions with individuals and systems outside of the community.

16

Bonding social capital

Inward looking and tends to mobilize solidarity and in-group loyalty, and it leads to exclusive identities and homogenous communities. May lead to strong out-group hostilities.

17

Bridging social capital

Outward looking and diverse, and it links community members to assets and informations across community boundaries.

18

Personal community

Composed of ties with friends, relatives, neighbors, workmates etc.

19

Network

Set of social relations or social ties among a set of actors.

20

Solidarity community

Seeks participation of all members in an integrated fashion.

21

Networked individualism (community)

Individuals operate in large, personalized, complex networks.

22

Social capital

Community cohesion based on dense social networks, high levels of civil engagement, and a sense of solidarity and equality among members.

23

Collective efficacy

The capacity of community residents to achieve social control over the environment and to engage in collective action for the shared common good.

24

Social action model (community)

Community organization model that is political in nature, emphasizing social reform and challenge of structured inequalities.

25

Agency-based model (community)

Community organization that promotes social agencies and the services they provided. Based on assumption that best way to strengthen communities is to provide social services.

26

Locality development/social development

Bringing community members together for the purpose of building or strengthening the sense of community and identifying programs and resources.

27

Social planning model (community)

Community of social work is based on premise that complexities of modern social problems require expert planners schooled in a rational planning model.

Based on Participatory Rural Appraisal which has three assumptions:
1) local knowledge
2) local resources
3) outside help