Flashcards in Chapter 6- Features of Fire Protection Deck (48)
It is equally important to understand what sort of protection fire resistance is not supposed to provide:
-Fire resistance, by itself, is not specifically directed at ensuring __ __.
-Fire resistance is not specifically intended to provide __ __.
-Fire resistance is not concerned with the __ __ due to fire.
The basis for regulation of flame spread today is found in NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, commonly referred to as the __ __ test.
The test was developed by the late A.J. Steiner at Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. and is also known as ASTM E-84 and UL 723. Essentially, a test sample __ feet long and __ feet wide forms the top of a tunnel or long box.
There are two comparison points in evaluating test results. The flame spread over inorganic reinforced cement board is set at __. The flame spread over red oak is set at __.
Tests have shown that fire can reach the end of a red oak test panel in __ minutes.
Other materials tested are rated on a scale determined by these points. The formula by which the flame spread index is calculated can be found in NFPA 255. Flame spread of surface materials is classified as follow:
-Class A: __-__
-Class B: __-__
Class C: __-__
The NBS developed ASTM E-162, __ __ Flame Spread Test.
Samples for this test measure only __ by __ inches.
The __ test developed by FM Approvals is designed to simulate an actual fire within the corner of a building.
In the test, the walls are up to 25 feet high; the east wall is __ feet long and the south wall is more than __ feet long.
This test assesses, among other things, __ __. It is considered more realistic than the Steiner tunnel test because the material is being tested in a more realistic configuration, as compared with the horizontal tunnel test.
The Critical __ __ Test (NFPA 253) measures a material's ability to resist flame spread.
The result derived from the test is the critical __ __ of the sample. This is the amount of external radiant heat energy (measured in watts per square centimeter) below which a flame front will cease to propagate. The higher the CRF number, the less flammable the carpeting.
Where regulated, the model building and fire codes consider two classes of interior floor finish ratings:
-Class 1: CRF minimum > or equal to __ watts/sq cm.
-Class 2: CRF minimum > or equal to __ watts/sq cm.
Fire doors can have fire protection ratings ranging from __ minutes to __ hours, depending on the type of fire resistance rated assembly the fire door is located in.
20 mins to 3 hours
Fire doors may close by any of three methods:
-__ the most common choice; used in corridors and stairwell openings.
-__ typically found across openings in elevator shafts or stairwells in old factories.
-__ used in large openings found in modern factories and warehouses.
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems.
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One and Two Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes.
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Low Rise Residential Occupancies (low rise in this case means residential occupancies four stories or fewer and less than 60 feet in height).
These systems employ automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing water under pressure at all times.
Wet pipe systems
These systems have automatic sprinklers attached to piping that contains air or nitrogen under pressure.
Dry pipe systems
These systems in which there is air in the piping that may or may not be under pressure. The advantage of these systems is that water typically will not flow if a sprinkler or pipe is broken, a desirable feature for areas that have easily damaged contents.
These systems have all sprinklers open at all times. When heat from a fire actuates the fire detecting device, the valve opens and water flows to, and is discharged from, all sprinklers on the piping system.
The two model building and fire codes provide different incentives for the installation of sprinklers. It has been estimated that there are over __ incentives in the International Building Code.
Because of the loss of firefighters' lives in cellar fires, some cities have required sprinklers for basements in excess of a certain size, usually __ square feet.
Sprinkler piping is hydrostatically tested after installation for __ hours at __ psi, much more extensive testing than domestic piping is subjected to.
NFPA 13R and 13D systems are based on data that indicates the omitted areas are not vulnerable to fire. Unsprinklered areas include __ __ and __ as well as __ __.
The orifice of an ESFR sprinkler is __ inch in size, conventional sprinklers have 1/2 inch openings.
A class 1 standpipe system provides __ inch hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
2 1/2 inch