Flashcards in Chapter 8- Heavy Timber and Mill Construction Deck (13)
While new mills are not being constructed, heavy timber construction continues to be desirable, particularly for __ and __.
The construction of mills in the United States quickly shifted to masonry exterior walls (as churches had done many years earlier) during the first half of the 1800s. This new form of factory became known as __ construction.
Characteristics of mill construction include the following features:
-Exterior load bearing and non load bearing walls are solid masonry, usually either brick or stone, such as granite or sandstone.
-Columns and beams are of heavy timber with cast iron connectors used to cover joints where the fire might obtain a hold.
-Floors are of thick grooved, splined, or laminated planks.
-Roofs of thick splined or laminated planks are supported by beams or timber arches and trusses.
-Openings between floors are enclosed by adequate fire barriers.
-The ends of girders are fire cut to release in the event of collapse without bringing the wall down.
-There are scuppers (drains in the wall) to drain off water.
-Concealed spaces are eliminated.
-A large number of windows are used to provide maximum lighting to the interior of the mill.
-One story sawtooth mill structures became popular around the turn of the early 1900s.
-The protection of vertical openings and the division of the building into sections by fire walls are vital.
-Most important is an automatic sprinkler system with a water flow alarm and an alarm connection to the fire department.
-Special hazards particularly hazardous industrial processes or hazardous materials should be located in detached buildings.
It has been observed that __ __ often remain intact in multistory heavy timber buildings after a fire.
Full __ __ protection, adequately maintained, is the only fire protection measure that can reasonably be expected to prevent a disaster in a heavy timber building.
Prefire plans should call for Heavy caliber __ __ master streams, which can provide maximum reach to cover the interior surfaces of heavy timber.
Concealed spaces are not permitted in __ __ construction under the building code. Nevertheless, be wary of spaces that may have been created when an old heavy timber mill was converted to commercial work lofts or for multifamily residential use.
An iron box built into a wall to receive the end of a girder.
Cast iron box
A wooden heavy timber column that has been cut at an angle on each of the corners to make it more difficult for fire to ignite the column at that location.
A series of projections, each one stepped progressively outward from the vertical face of the wall as it rises up to support a cornice or overhanging member above.
The earliest form of heavy timber construction; a type of factory that emerged during the Industrial Revolution.
An outlet in a wall of a building for drainage of water from a floor or a flat roof.