Flashcards in Chapter 3- Methods and Materials of Construction, Renovation, and Demolition Deck (46)
Structures that will be erected on very weak soils, such as those with high silt content, may need to use deep foundations such as __ and __.
Ammonia has a flammability range between __ __ percent.
Some materials are strong in tension and weak or unsuitable in compression. __ __ rope is a good example of this.
Specific terms are used to describe the size of a structural member:
Board: < or equal to __ inch nominal thickness.
Dimensional Lumber: __ - __ inch nominal thickness.
Timber: > or equal to __ inch nominal thickness.
Wood varies greatly in its compressive strength, depending on the __ in which the load is applied.
Thin wood veneers laid parallel to the length of the member.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
Long veneers laid parallel, but in a more random arrangement.
Parallel Strand lumber (PSL)
Similar to OSB but with longer 12 inch flaked wood strands.
Laminated strand lumber (LSL)
Natural stone buildings will spall when exposed to fire. __ particularly is subject to spalling.
__ is almost equally strong in compression and tension. Usually __ is tested only in tension.
__ __ concrete is a special type of lightweight concrete (1/4 the weight of traditional concrete) that is cured in a factory kiln under high pressure, creating millions of small cells inside the concrete. It has performed well in fire resistance testing, but may not have the compressive strength of traditional concrete.
__ iron is malleable and contains little carbon (0.2%).
__ iron is a very brittle material with high carbon content (3-4%). If heated in a fire, it can easily fail when struck with cold water from a hose stream.
Structural steel, in common use today, is an alloy composed of iron and carbon (<2%). It has three negative characteristics in fires:
1. It conducts heat.
2. When heated, it elongates and may push through any barrier.
3. It fails at about 1,000-1100 degrees F.
__ melts at very typical fire temperatures.
(polystyrene) can produce flaming, dripping plastic, which will produce secondary fires.
(polyurethane) are plastics that char and burn, but do not flow.
__ is a composite multilayer sheathing panel system; it is composed of a polystyrene foam plastic base covered with a water resistant coating and fiberglass mesh and an acrylic finish.
EIFS; Exterior Insulation Finishing System
The __ of a material affects its ability to resist a compressive load or a deflective one.
Shape is not a consideration in __ loads.
__ give steel a greater ability to span a gap, without unacceptable deflection or bending, than the same steel would have as a flat plate.
A material other than water, aggregate, and cement used as an ingredient in concrete or mortar.
Any variety of materials, such as sand and gravel, added to a cement mixture to make concrete.
A set of regulations passed in 1990 that includes, among other things, regulations requiring areas of refuge for disabled people in multistory buildings.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Regulates the actual design and construction of new buildings, providing for minimum levels of health and safety. Regulates the level and amount of fire protection in a new structure.
A shaft of concrete placed under a building column or wall extending down to bedrock.
Precast hollow or solid structural blocks. Sometimes referred to as cinder block.
Concrete masonry unit (CMU)
Grooved ridged material, often metal.
Internal bracing that transfers the lateral earth pressures between opposing walls through compressive struts.