Chapter 3- Methods and Materials of Construction, Renovation, and Demolition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3- Methods and Materials of Construction, Renovation, and Demolition Deck (46)
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1

Structures that will be erected on very weak soils, such as those with high silt content, may need to use deep foundations such as __ and __.

Piles, Caissons

2

Ammonia has a flammability range between __ __ percent.

15-25%

3

Some materials are strong in tension and weak or unsuitable in compression. __ __ rope is a good example of this.

Manila Hemp

4

Specific terms are used to describe the size of a structural member:

Board: < or equal to __ inch nominal thickness.
Dimensional Lumber: __ - __ inch nominal thickness.
Timber: > or equal to __ inch nominal thickness.

2
2-4
5

5

Wood varies greatly in its compressive strength, depending on the __ in which the load is applied.

Direction

6

Thin wood veneers laid parallel to the length of the member.

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL)

7

Long veneers laid parallel, but in a more random arrangement.

Parallel Strand lumber (PSL)

8

Similar to OSB but with longer 12 inch flaked wood strands.

Laminated strand lumber (LSL)

9

Natural stone buildings will spall when exposed to fire. __ particularly is subject to spalling.

Granite

10

__ is almost equally strong in compression and tension. Usually __ is tested only in tension.

Steel

11

__ __ concrete is a special type of lightweight concrete (1/4 the weight of traditional concrete) that is cured in a factory kiln under high pressure, creating millions of small cells inside the concrete. It has performed well in fire resistance testing, but may not have the compressive strength of traditional concrete.

Aerated autoclave

12

__ iron is malleable and contains little carbon (0.2%).

Wrought

13

__ iron is a very brittle material with high carbon content (3-4%). If heated in a fire, it can easily fail when struck with cold water from a hose stream.

Cast

14

Structural steel, in common use today, is an alloy composed of iron and carbon (<2%). It has three negative characteristics in fires:

1. It conducts heat.
2. When heated, it elongates and may push through any barrier.
3. It fails at about 1,000-1100 degrees F.

15

__ melts at very typical fire temperatures.

Aluminum

16

(polystyrene) can produce flaming, dripping plastic, which will produce secondary fires.

Thermoplastics

17

(polyurethane) are plastics that char and burn, but do not flow.

Thermosets

18

__ is a composite multilayer sheathing panel system; it is composed of a polystyrene foam plastic base covered with a water resistant coating and fiberglass mesh and an acrylic finish.

EIFS; Exterior Insulation Finishing System

19

The __ of a material affects its ability to resist a compressive load or a deflective one.

Shape

20

Shape is not a consideration in __ loads.

Tensile

21

__ give steel a greater ability to span a gap, without unacceptable deflection or bending, than the same steel would have as a flat plate.

Corrugations

22

A material other than water, aggregate, and cement used as an ingredient in concrete or mortar.

Admixture

23

Any variety of materials, such as sand and gravel, added to a cement mixture to make concrete.

Aggregate

24

A set of regulations passed in 1990 that includes, among other things, regulations requiring areas of refuge for disabled people in multistory buildings.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

25

Regulates the actual design and construction of new buildings, providing for minimum levels of health and safety. Regulates the level and amount of fire protection in a new structure.

Building Code

26

A shaft of concrete placed under a building column or wall extending down to bedrock.

Caisson

27

Precast hollow or solid structural blocks. Sometimes referred to as cinder block.

Concrete masonry unit (CMU)

28

Grooved ridged material, often metal.

Corrugation

29

Internal bracing that transfers the lateral earth pressures between opposing walls through compressive struts.

Crosslot bracing

30

Temporary shoring, formwork, beams, or lateral bracing to support the work in the process of construction; also known as formwork.

Falsework