Flashcards in Chapter 2- Concepts of Construction Deck (143)
NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code, _____ are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, and restrained dimensional changes.
The internal forces that resist the load are called
Stress and Strain.
__, a term meaning 1,000 pounds, is used in engineering calculations where the number would be so large as to be unwieldy.
Generally, four types of forces can be applied to a structural member: __, __, __, and __.
compression, tension, torsion, shear.
Today, buildings can be considered as being bought
by the pound
__ loads can be accurately calculated.
__ loads are indeterminate. The __ load must be estimated based on the projected use of the building and such variables as snow, wind, or rain.
Water weighs __ pounds per gallon, so a 1,000 gallon per minute master stream will potentially add over 4 tons of weight to the building in just 1 minute.
__ loads are loads that are applied slowly and remain constant.
Two closely related structural frames, the __ __ and the __ __, are also used in buildings to resist lateral wind and earthquake loads (and, more recently, the lateral blast loads from a terrorist's bomb). ____ ____ uses diagonal memebers for bracing purposes, while ____ _____ uses a special moment connects between columns and beams that resist rotation.
Braced frame, Moment frame
Very tall high-rise buildings are built to take the wind load on the __ __ rather than on the __ __.
Exterior walls, interior core.
A steel beam resting on a masonry wall is an example of a __ __ load.
A safe is a __ __ load.
Wood, paper and similar materials are estimated at __ btu/lb.
For plastics and combustible liquids, __ btu/lb is a common estimate, though the caloric value for some of these fuels is much higher.
Under this system, plastics were converted into equivalent pounds on the basis that __ pound of plastics equals __ pounds of wood.
A fire load of 80,000 Btu/sq ft or 10 lbs of ordinary combustibles/sq ft is approximately the equivalent of a __ hour exposure to the standard fire endurance test ASTM E-119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.
Steel, which has a safety factor of __; masonry constructed in place might have a safety factor of __.
Concrete is a relatively inexpensive material that is strong in __ but weak in __.
The load carrying capacity of a beam increases by the __ of its depth.
__ can support axial loads but are not designed to handle rotational moments
Wooden __ chord trusses are being used for floors and roofs in single family homes, row houses, apartment houses, and smaller office buildings.
The top chord of a truss is in __.
The bottom chord is in __.
When a truss is __ out, the situation reverses.
It is more difficult to attach beams to __ columns than to rectangular columns, so less efficient rectangular columns are often used.
In cast iron construction in buildings, interior columns are usually __, while wall columns (within exterior walls) are __.
There are three types of columns, which can be differentiated by the manner in which they generally fail. __ are short, squat columns, which fail by crushing.
Long, __ columns fail by buckling. In buckling, the column normally assumes an S shape.