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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Concepts of Construction Deck (143)
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1

NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code, _____ are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, and restrained dimensional changes.

Loads

2

The internal forces that resist the load are called

Stress and Strain.

3

__, a term meaning 1,000 pounds, is used in engineering calculations where the number would be so large as to be unwieldy.

KIP

4

Generally, four types of forces can be applied to a structural member: __, __, __, and __.

compression, tension, torsion, shear.

5

Today, buildings can be considered as being bought

by the pound

6

__ loads can be accurately calculated.

Dead

7

__ loads are indeterminate. The __ load must be estimated based on the projected use of the building and such variables as snow, wind, or rain.

Live

8

Water weighs __ pounds per gallon, so a 1,000 gallon per minute master stream will potentially add over 4 tons of weight to the building in just 1 minute.

8.34

9

__ loads are loads that are applied slowly and remain constant.

Static

10

Two closely related structural frames, the __ __ and the __ __, are also used in buildings to resist lateral wind and earthquake loads (and, more recently, the lateral blast loads from a terrorist's bomb). ____ ____ uses diagonal memebers for bracing purposes, while ____ _____ uses a special moment connects between columns and beams that resist rotation.

Braced frame, Moment frame

11

Very tall high-rise buildings are built to take the wind load on the __ __ rather than on the __ __.

Exterior walls, interior core.

12

A steel beam resting on a masonry wall is an example of a __ __ load.

Concentrated dead.

13

A safe is a __ __ load.

Concentrated live.

14

Wood, paper and similar materials are estimated at __ btu/lb.

8000

15

For plastics and combustible liquids, __ btu/lb is a common estimate, though the caloric value for some of these fuels is much higher.

16000

16

Under this system, plastics were converted into equivalent pounds on the basis that __ pound of plastics equals __ pounds of wood.

1, 2.

17

A fire load of 80,000 Btu/sq ft or 10 lbs of ordinary combustibles/sq ft is approximately the equivalent of a __ hour exposure to the standard fire endurance test ASTM E-119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.

1

18

Steel, which has a safety factor of __; masonry constructed in place might have a safety factor of __.

2, 10.

19

Concrete is a relatively inexpensive material that is strong in __ but weak in __.

Compression, tension.

20

The load carrying capacity of a beam increases by the __ of its depth.

Square

21

__ can support axial loads but are not designed to handle rotational moments

Trusses

22

Wooden __ chord trusses are being used for floors and roofs in single family homes, row houses, apartment houses, and smaller office buildings.

Parallel

23

The top chord of a truss is in __.

Compression

24

The bottom chord is in __.

Tension

25

When a truss is __ out, the situation reverses.

Cantilevered

26

It is more difficult to attach beams to __ columns than to rectangular columns, so less efficient rectangular columns are often used.

Round.

27

In cast iron construction in buildings, interior columns are usually __, while wall columns (within exterior walls) are __.

Circular, Rectangular.

28

There are three types of columns, which can be differentiated by the manner in which they generally fail. __ are short, squat columns, which fail by crushing.

Piers

29

Long, __ columns fail by buckling. In buckling, the column normally assumes an S shape.

Slender

30

__ columns can fail either way.

Intermediate