Chapter 23: Ideologies and Upheavals, 1815-1850 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23: Ideologies and Upheavals, 1815-1850 Deck (38)
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1

Early socialists often drew inspiration from
A) the emergency measures of 1793 and 1794.
B) Oliver Cromwell's rule of England as Lord Protector.
C) Thomas Malthus's diagnosis of the problems of population growth.
D) Joseph Mazzini's Duties of Man.
E) the writings of Karl Marx.

Ans: A

2

At the Congress of Vienna, the victorious allies
A) were guided by the principle of the balance of power.
B) resurrected the Holy Roman Empire.
C) treated France very harshly.
D) established constitutional monarchies in the areas conquered by Napoleon.
E) sought to reduce armaments.

Ans: A

3

The peace settlement arranged at Vienna in 1815 included all of the following except
A) Prussia was given extensive territories in the Rhineland.
B) acceptance of an enlarged France.
C) national self-determination.
D) numerous territorial exchanges to maintain equilibrium.
E) unification of Belgium and Holland under a single monarchy.

Ans: C

4

28. The Holy Alliance included
A) France and Britain. D) Spain, Austria, and Prussia.
B) Russia, Greece, and Serbia. E) Austria, Russia, and Prussia.
C) Mexico, Spain, and Austria.

Ans: E

5

29. Austria and France intervened in Italy and Spain, respectively, in order to
A) prevent foreign conquest of these countries.
B) suppress liberal and nationalistic revolutions in both areas.
C) enforce the compensation agreements agreed to at Vienna.
D) divert attention from economic problems in Vienna and Paris.
E) establish constitutional monarchies.

Ans: B

6

30. The Carlsbad Decrees
A) sparked the Revolutions of 1848.
B) instituted repressive measures in the German Confederation.
C) were the artistic manifesto of the Romantic movement.
D) established a constitutional monarchy in France.
E) established the Holy Alliance.

Ans: B

7

Why did Klemens von Metternich, as Austrian foreign minister, have to oppose the
spread of nationalism in Europe?
A) As a classical liberal, he feared that it would lead to intolerance and violence.
B) Austria's rulers feared the power of a resurgent nationalist Ottoman Empire.
C) Austria pursued a policy of free trade, which was incompatible with economic
nationalism.
D) Austria was a multiethnic empire, and the spread of nationalism among its
different ethnic groups threatened to dissolve the empire.
E) Above all, Metternich feared French nationalism.

Ans: D

8

The demands of liberalism included all of the following except
A) social welfare reform.
B) representative government.
C) individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech, press, and assembly.
D) minimal government interference in the economy.
E) equality before the law.

Ans: A

9

The success of the Revolution of 1830 was due primarily to
A) the shrewd political genius of Louis Philippe.
B) Lafayette's unwavering leadership.
C) the revolutionary actions and leadership of the upper-middle-class liberals and
nationalists.
D) revolutionary actions of the artisans, shopkeepers, and workers of Paris.
E) the rebellion in the French countryside.

Ans: D

10

In 1815 Napoleon escaped from the island of
A) Saint Helen. B) Elba. C) Sardinia. D) Corsica. E) Malta.

Ans: B

11

According to the text, industrialization facilitated the spread of nationalism because
A) prominent industrialists financed many nationalist movements.
B) newly arrived workers in cities required a common national language with which
to communicate.
C) nationalists and industrialists both had an interest in promoting increased military
spending.
D) factory workers supported economic nationalism as a way to protect their jobs.
E) it led to the development of larger armies.

Ans: B

12

Metternich was Austrian foreign minister from
A) 1809 to 1848. D) 1848 to 1870.
B) 1789 to 1815. E) 1812 to 1830.
C) 1830 to 1848.

Ans: A

13

In their war of independence against the Ottoman Empire, the Greeks ultimately won the
support of
A) Austria, Prussia, and Russia. D) Great Britain, France, and Russia.
B) Austria. E) Great Britain.
C) the Netherlands and Great Britain.

Ans: D

14

Early French socialists believed in all of the following except
A) economic planning.
B) helping and protecting the poor.
C) state ownership of property.
D) violent class warfare.
E) the disruptive nature of free market competition.

Ans: D

15

Which French socialist participated in the provisional government formed in Paris after
the February 1848 abdication of King Louis Philippe?
A) Henri de Saint-Simon. D) Charles Fourier.
B) Joseph Proudhon. E) Karl Marx.
C) Louis Blanc.

Ans: C

16

According to the text, one of Karl Marx's most important criticisms of the French
utopian socialists was
A) that several of them were of noble birth.
B) that they were wrong to believe that a socialist society could be built without
industrialization.
C) that they underestimated the intelligence of the working classes.
D) that central economic planning was inefficient.
E) that their appeals to the wealthy to help the poor were naive.

Ans: E

17

Karl Marx argued that socialism would be established
A) through electoral victories and control of legislatures.
B) by violent revolution.
C) by the cooperation of all classes to alleviate poverty and exploitation.
D) through the efforts of enlightened rulers.
E) by a gradual process of concentration of ownership of economic enterprises.

Ans: B

18

The doctrine of laissez faire holds that there should be
A) government intervention in all aspects of the economy.
B) government intervention in industry, but not in agriculture.
C) as little government intervention in the economy as possible.
D) government intervention in agriculture, but not in industry.
E) state planning of the economy.

Ans: C

19

According to Joseph Proudhon, property was
A) a natural right.
B) profit stolen from workers.
C) derived from labor invested in land and products.
D) a gift from God.
E) a sign of the owner's virtue and conscientiousness.

Ans: B

20

Germaine de Staël's On Germany
A) urged French artists and writers to embrace German Romanticism.
B) warned of the danger of the “sentinel on the Rhine.”
C) called for the unification of Germany.
D) denounced the conservative repression led by Metternich.
E) urged French conquest of Germany.

Ans: A

21

Count Henri de Saint-Simon believed that
A) the key to progress was proper social organization.
B) sexual freedom was a necessary component of political freedom.
C) society should return to seventeenth-century norms.
D) nature should be worshipped as a god.
E) ownership of private property was a crime.

Ans: A

22

George Sand's novel Lélia explored
A) the world of urban working women.
B) her life as a prostitute in Paris.
C) the role of a provincial wife and mother.
D) her own quest for sexual and personal freedom.
E) the difficulties of establishing oneself as a professional writer.

Ans: D

23

Eugène Delacroix's greatest masterpiece celebrated the
A) nobility of popular revolution.
B) sensuality of women.
C) transforming power of industrialization.
D) exoticism of the Romantic movement.
E) glory of Napoleon.

Ans: A

24

Romanticism was, in part, a rejection of
A) realism. B) nationalism. C) naturalism. D) humanism. E) classicism.

Ans: E

25

The revisions to the Corn Law in 1815 were intended to
A) ease the economic problems of the working classes.
B) promote free trade.
C) make England agriculturally selfsufficient.
D) protect the economic interests of the aristocracy.
E) drive French manufactured products off the English market.

Ans: D

26

The beliefs and aspirations of the Romantics included all of the following except
A) a rejection of materialism.
B) emotional exuberance.
C) that personal fulfillment was the supreme purpose in life.
D) a spontaneity in life and art.
E) a rejection of nature.

Ans: E

27

As a result of the English Reform Bill of 1832,
A) the Commons became the most important legislative body.
B) all males gained the right to vote.
C) the Tories emerged as the dominant political party.
D) the role of the monarch was reduced.
E) the Corn Laws were repealed.

Ans: A

28

The Battle of Peterloo refers to the
A) last-gasp attempt of Napoleon I to retain his empire.
B) workingclass demonstration that was broken up by cavalry charges.
C) bloody repression of the Parisian workers during the Revolution of 1848.
D) victory of the Anti-Corn Law League.
E) parliamentary debates over laws to limit child labor.

Ans: B

29

The repeal of the Corn Laws ushered in an era of
A) agricultural depression.
B) famine and economic depression.
C) free trade.
D) remarkable expansion of British agriculture.
E) unparalleled repression.

Ans: C

30

The most important factor influencing the peaceful midcentury reforms in Great Britain
was
A) the fear of workingclass revolution.
B) the ideas of Karl Marx.
C) the outbreak of revolution on the continent.
D) the moderating influence of the monarch.
E) political competition between the aristocracy and the middle class.

Ans: E