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What is an emotion? 3 components?

-responses that vary in "goodness" to external stimuli and/or internal mental representations

1. physiological reaction (rapid heart beat)
2. behavioral response (smiling)
3. a feeling


list 10 basic emotions (as defined by Izard)

1. Joy
2. Surprise
3. Sadness
4. Anger
5. Disgust
6. Fear
7. Contempt
8. Shame
9. Guilt
10. Interest- excitement


James-Lange theory of emotion

-physiological arousal comes before emotion

stimulus --> physiological response --> behavioral response ---. cognition --> subjective emotional feeling

ex: see bear --> adrenaline, heart beat---> run ---> interpret physiological response --> I'm scared


Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

-physiological arousal and emotion happen at the same time

stimulus --> cortex (feeling) AND hypothalamus, physiological response, behavioral response

ex: bear ---> I'm scared AND sympathetic nervous system, racing heart beat, fight or flight, run


two-factor theory

-emotions have 2 ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal

-thinking contributes to feeling

-sees bear---> physiological response (arousal)---> behavioral response --->cognition -->run

ex: walking down alley, hear noise, know is a bad place = leads to feeling of fear


High road theory (Lazarus)

-thinking before feeling (complex)
-emotions arise when we appease an event as harmless or dangerous

-cognition (quick risk-benefit appraisal) --> emotional feeling --> behavioral response

ex: sees bear--->evaluate (risk is high, and there's no benefit)---> I am in danger --> I'm scared---> runs


low road theory (LeDoux)

-feeling before thinking (simple)
-feeling something w/out knowing why
-instant emotional reactions apart from cognitive appraisal

stimulus ---> slow cognition (emotional feeling) OR fast cognition (defensive behavior)

sees bear--? slow (I'm scared) OR fast (run)


describe the lesion and deficits of patient S.M.

-bilateral amygdala atrophy
-unable to identify fear in faces and has a selective reduced experience of fear (unable to avoid dangerous situations)

-can recognize other emotions, BUT if S.M. looks at the eyes she can recognize fear


where is the lesion located in human patients with Kluver-Bucy syndrome .......symptoms

-location: amygdala

-symptoms: Docility (loss of fear and anger responses);
Hyperorality (Like to put random things in their mouths); Dietary changes; Visual agnosia; Amnesia; Hypersexuality


how is the amygdala involved in implicit memory

-Amygdala is critical for the acquisition and expression of an implicitly conditioned fear response

-ex: a memory we have learned personally


how is the amygdala involved in explicit memory

- Amygdala is also necessary for normal indirect emotional responses to stimuli whose emotional properties are learned explicitly

-Amygdala can enhance the strength of explicit memories for emotional events by modulating storage

Ex: if neighbor tells us a dog is dangerous in our neighborhood= we become afraid of that dog based on what we learned explicitly


how is the amygdala involved in decision making

damage to amygdala causes difficulty with decision making


how is the orbitofrontal cortex involved in decision making

Patients with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) damage have trouble anticipating consequences of their actions and learning from mistakes (and therefore decision

-emotion regulation


name all the emotional processes that the amygdala has been shown to be involved in

-recognition of fearful faces and fear
-categorizing people into groups
-implicit and explicit emotional learning
-decision making
-social interactions (eyes)


how is the insula involved in emotional processing

--body information central

-Necessary to be aware of our body states to experience emotion

-Lesions associated with reduced arousal and reduced valence (positive/negative)

-May be particularly import in DISGUST

-Involved in integrating physiological reaction with our cognitive state of feeling


_____________ (flashbulb memory, cognitive memory) shows amygdala involvement, whereas ___________ (flashbulb memory, cognitive memory) does not

Flashbulb memory ; cognitive memory


which brain areas have been implicated in processing of anger

-OFC and left ACC

-left temporal
-ventrolateral PFC
-superior temporal


what are the neural correlates of love

-More complex than basic emotions
-Activation of a distributed network of dopamine rich brain areas

-no amygdala activation found, only lust


has a single brain area been identified to be involved in all emotions?



which theory?

you feel a sudden intense fear, and you don't know why

LeDoux; low road


which theory?

When students perceive the arousal that accompanies test-taking as energizing rather than debilitating, they experience much less anxiety.

Lazarus; high road


which theory?

You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. Upon noticing this arousal you realize that it comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself. This behavior is dangerous, and therefore you feel the emotion of fear.

singer-Schachter ; high road