9: Memory part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9: Memory part 2 Deck (25)
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1

What is the delayed match to sample task?

-In this delayed nonmatch to sample task:
a. A food reward is placed under an object
b.  The door is opened and the monkey can
retrieve the food
c. After a delay, a food reward is placed under
a new object
d.  The door is opened and the monkey can
retrieve the food under the non-matched item


○ Monkeys can perform this task and be trained very well

• Monkeys are trained to perform this task, then learning and memory can be observed

2

What is the delayed match to sample task? findings

-Those monkeys with lesions of the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex (HP) performed more poorly than

-Number of trials it takes for them to get it right is higher

-And monkeys with lesions of the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex and perirhinal cortex (HPP) performed even more poorly


-Conclusion: Both the hippocampus and surrounding MTL critical for forming LTM

3

Does the tissue surrounding the hippocampus contribute to memory function?

yes, Both the hippocampus and surrounding MTL critical for forming LTM

-monkey studies

4

How is the MTL involved in encoding of declarative memories? How about retrieval of declarative memories?

-Hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, and frontal cortex showed activity at encoding for items that the participant had seen, reported having seen, and correctly indicated the color

-Confirms that the hippocampus (and MTL) are important for forming new long-term memories

-Successfully encoded items, participants able to tell which item they had seen and in what color

5

What structure is involved in familiarity memory?

-anterior parts of the parahippocampal cortex (perirhinal and entorhinal cortex)

-perirhinal

6

Is the frontal cortex involved in memory? How?

-involved in STM and LTM

-Left frontal cortex = Episodic encoding OR Linguistic memory tasks (Words, linguistic verbal tasks)

-Right frontal cortex = Episodic retrieval OR Spatial memory tasks

- Ex: Outline of a frog when hearing or thinking of the word frog
Faces

7

What is the frontal aging hypothesis?

-states that normal age-related cognitive deficits are mediated by cognitive control deficits associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction

-Early memory deficits could be due to the fact that the frontal cortex is the last to mature but the first to deteriorate with age

8

Is parietal cortex involved in memory?

-Successful memory retrieval is also associated with activity in posterior parietal cortex

-Maintenance of info in working memory

-Integration of multiple types of information

-Attentional process of info entering working memory from senses or LTM

9

Where are memories stored in the brain?

-Memories are stored as distributed representations throughout the cortex, involving the areas in which they were perceived

○ Visual memories = stored in visual cortex
○ Auditory memories = stored in auditory cortex
-Motor = basal ganglia and cerebellum

10

What is consolidation? Describe 2 theories of consolidation.

-the process by which immediate memories are transformed into LTM

-Hippocampus is necessary for consolidation, storing them in specific areas of the brain

1. standard consolidation theory

2. multiple trace theory

11

standard consolidation theory

-Hippocampus is necessary for binding all of these memories together in the distributed part of the brain, BUT overtime hippocampus no longer necessary

-Older memories tend to be more preserved than newer memories

12

multiple trace theory

-For semantic memories = hippocampus is initially necessary, but overtime no longer is needed b/c a sense of familiarity takes over

-For episodic = hippocampus remains involve forever

13

Medial temporal lobe (MTL)

-Hippocampus = Encoding and recollection

-Parahippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortices = Recognition

14

frontal lobe

-STM and LTM, lateralized

15

parietal cortex

Multiple theories how parietal could be contributing to memory

16

occipital cortex

involved in visual perceptual memories

17

Sensory and motor areas

storage

18

basal ganglia

Nondeclarative procedural memory

19

cerebellum

Nondeclarative conditioning

20

amygdala

Affective memory , emotional memories

21

fornix

Connects hippocampus to other structures

22

Mamillary bodies

Spatial memory

23

Anterior thalamic nucleus

Recency memory

24

Lateral anterior temporal cortex

semantic memory

25

LTP

-a long-lasting strengthening of the response of a postsynaptic nerve cell to stimulation across the synapse that occurs with repeated stimulation and is thought to be related to learning and long-term memory

-new memory forms a new synapse, the longer we think about memory and recall memory = stronger synapse

-Synaptic connections are changing