12 SOCIAL COGNITION DEVELOPMENT Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12 SOCIAL COGNITION DEVELOPMENT Deck (32)
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1

Why is social cognition important

-social relationships are hugely influential

-social relationships

2

basic social cognitive concepts

-basic understanding of others

-basic understanding of the self

3

how can we identify a basic understanding of others early in development

-early social interactions: still face, early conversations, joint attention

-description of others

4

still face ...what is this task and what are the results

-mom interacts with baby
-mom puts on a still face (emotionless )
-observe how baby reacts

-baby cries when he does not received the same reaction

5

joint attention

-child, toy, and caregiver

6

how do description of others change with development

-early childhood: observable, tangible, concrete features (long hair, neat toy)

-later childhood: abstract, internal, enduring traits, social context (nice, funny, cares about other people )

7

self concept

how one defines themselves

8

components of self concept

1. how I see myself
2. how others see me

9

how can we identify a basic understanding of the self early in development

-rouge test
-descriptions of oneself

10

rouge test ...what is it and results

-Gold standard test for acquisition of self concept

-12-month-olds fail (touch the mirror), whereas 15- to 18-month-olds begin to pass (touch the dot on themselves)

11

how do descriptions of the self change with development

-toddler: demographics appearance (age, sex)

-preschool: concrete, observable features, activities, possessions (I have a dog)

-middle childhood: comparing to others (I'm smarter than Sarah)

-late childhood and up: enduring disposition and social relationships (I'm an environmental activist)

12

What is ToM

-a key social concept
-a concept of the mind and mental states

-the ability to understand that our own and others' behavior is governed by internal mental states

13

ToM illustrated in Friends episode

-Interpreting emotions from facial expressions
-Interpreting desires from actions and emotions

-Interpreting and predicting actions from inferred knowledge/belief states

-deception
-cooperation
-empathy

14

Heider and Himmel task

-triangles

-allows us to organize and make sense of actions and interactions

15

why is ToM important

-allows us to make sense of our social world
-allows us to predict and explain behavior
-underlines complex social behaviors and interactions (pro sociality, empathy, cooperation, deception, relationship formation )

-helps understanding some disorders in which ToM is impaired

16

how do we test ToM in children

false belief task

17

false-belief task 2 common variations

-location change
-deceptive contents

18

what specific aspects of mental state understanding is ToM testing

-mental states are person specific, distinct from reality

-mental states guide action

19

Why is it the gold standard test of a fully fledged ToM

is person specific, and reality distinct

20

what is the developmental trajectory of ToM

• Most 5 yr olds on average pass
• 4 yr old= some pass, some fail

-3 yr old= consistently fail

-across variations in tasks, and cultures/countries

21

bellman, cross and Watson

-Researchers asked if this was the overall pattern, 3 yr old fails, 5 yr old passes depending on : task, question, participant involvement, culture

-results: Across 591 studies, 3 yr olds fail, 5 yr olds pass, 4 yr olds are in between

22

diverse desires

- pass btw 2-3
-desire shows up before belief reasoning

-Ask kid which snack they liked, then introduce them to a character that likes the opposite snack
-Ask kid which snack will the character pick

23

diverse beliefs

-pass btwn 3-4
-Show kid that the cat in in the tree, but that Elmo thinks the cat is in the shed
-Ask where Elmo will look
-

24

knowledge access

-pass btw 3.5-4.5 years
-participant finds out there's a pineapple in the box
-does Garfield know what's in the box?


-Understanding that people think differently is passed earlier than reality-distinct tasks

25

what forces (nature/nurture) influence ToM development

-experience with others
-exposure to language
-domain-general memory and inhibitory control
-brain maturation

26

experience with others supporting evidence

○ Children with more siblings perform better on ToM tasks

○ Children who engage in pretend/fantasy play perform better on ToM tasks

27

exposure to language supporting evidence

○ Children with more advanced language skills perform better on ToM tasks

-Deaf children born to non-signing families (who thus get degraded language exposure) demonstrate delayed/impaired ToM performance

28

domain-general memory and inhibitory control supporting evidence

○ Deaf children born to non-signing families (who thus get degraded language exposure) demonstrate delayed/impaired ToM performance

-When inhibition/memory demands are reduced, children perform better

29

brain maturation supporting evidence

-3 yr olds fail
-5 yr olds pass

30

do infants hav a ToM

-yes infants understand basic intentions, goals, and desires