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1

What is the relationship between memory and learning?

-Learning: acquires new info, makes new synaptic connections

-Memory: outcome of learning, how new info is stored in brain and reactivated

-CAN'T be separated

2

Describe the Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory.

sensory inputs --> sensory register -->with attention becomes short term storage --> with rehearsal becomes long term storage

3

iconic memory

-visual
-< 1 sec
-a flash on retina
-if we close our eyes, we can sort of see it

4

echoic memory

-auditory
-about 3 sec
-we stored what was say at the beginning for a few secs

5

sensory memory duration, capacity

-brief transient
-1 second

-Duration: iconic and echoic

-capacity: high

6

STM duration and capacity

-seconds to minutes

-capacity: limited ; 7 +/- 2

7

LTM duration and capacity

- 1 hr to lifetime

-capacity: high

8

What is working memory? Describe a lateralization theory of working memory.

-A limited capacity store for retaining information over the short term (Maintenance) and for performing mental operations on the contents of this store (Manipulation)

-More active form of short term memory

-May have hemispheric specialization:
○ Left hemisphere = Phonological loop
○ Right hemisphere = Visuospatial sketchpad

9

Describe a lateralization theory of working memory.

-Working memory tends to happen in left hemisphere (verbal memory)

-Right hemisphere = maintain orientation of something (spatial memory)

10

How many pieces of information can be held in short-term memory?

-7 +/- 2
-7 numbers, 7 words, 7 pics

- Meaning we can remember 5 to 9 things at once

11

what is chunking

EX: 9168076528

-916 is a common area code so we group things into groups of three

-Turning it into 3 chunks instead of numbers

-grouping things together to remember better

12

LTM subdivisions

-explicit (declarative)
-implicit (nondeclarative)

13

explicit

-memories we are conscious about and can talk/ explain

-declarative
-intentional

14

implicit

-memories we are unconscious about and can't explain

-nondeclarative

15

implicit is ______ (declaritve; nondeclarativez) while explicit is _____ (declaritve; nondeclarative)

nondeclarative; declarative

16

explicit subdivisions

-semantic
-episodic

17

semantic

-facts

-Ex: remembering what foods are breakfast foods

18

episodic

-events

-remembering the actual episode of the event happening

-Ex: remembering what we had this morning for breakfast

19

encoding ...2 steps

-Forming a memory’s representation in the brain

1. Acquisition = Sensory stimuli make the cut into STM

2. Consolidation = Changes in the brain stabilize a memory over time resulting in LTM

-Turning a short term memory into a long term memory

20

storage

maintaining information

21

retrieval

-Process of accessing stored memories

-Pulling a LTM into our active working memory

22

recollection/ Recall

-Retrieving information out of storage into your conscious awareness

-Example: Fill in the blank on a test

-Pulling that information out w/out a cue

○ More difficult

23

familiarity/ recognition

-Identifying items you previously learned

- Example: Multiple-choice questions on a test

-recognizing an answer

24

relearning

-Learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time

-Example: Studying for a final will be faster than studying the material the first time

-Re-updating information much faster than we did the first time

25

What is the serial position effect? Give an example.

-We are much more likely to remember the 1st and last words on the list

-Words in the middle = more harder to remember

EX: Better chance at remembering what happened as a child or young adult or last week , but harder to remember middle life events

26

Describe the case study of HM. Was his short-term or long-term memory impaired? How about his declarative or nondeclarative memory? What did he teach us about memory and the MTL? What are some confounds with the study of HM?

-remove medial temporal lobes (hippocampus, amygdala, some cortex)

-HM was unable to make new long-term episodic memories, but remembered life events ~2 years prior to surgery (short-term memory was intact)

27

HM :Was his short-term or long-term memory impaired? How about his declarative or nondeclarative memory? What did he teach us about memory and the MTL? What are some confounds with the study of HM?

-long term memory impaired

-nondeclarative intact, declarative impaired

-medial temporal lobe is not involve in nondeclarative memory

28

retrograde amnesia

The inability to remember events before, especially just before, the surgery or trauma

29

anterograde amnesia

Short term memory is intact but can’t store any new long-term memories

-more common

30

infantile amnesia ....nature vs nurture explanations

-Inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories before the age of 2–4 years

-nature: Associated with progressive brain development, maybe brain hasn't develop ability to stored memories, language is not yet developed

-nurture: Cultural difference in the age at first memory, parenting style