Ch 22: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 22: Respiratory System Deck (111)
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1

The main function of the respiratory system is 

ventilation of the lungs to acquire O2 expel CO2

2

What are the other 8 functions of the respiratory system?

  1. Gas exchange
  2. Communication
  3. Olfaction
  4. Blood acid/base balance
  5. Blood pressure regulation
  6. Blood and Lymph circulatioin
  7. Blood filtration
  8. Expulsion of abdominal content

3

Blood acid-base balance is regulated by

the exchange of Oand CO2

4

How does the respiratory system help with blood and lymph circulation?

The rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm helps circulate them.

5

How does the respiratory system help with expulsion of abdominal content?

Taking a breath before urination, defication or regurgitation increses internal pressure assisting in expulsion effort

6

What are the two zones of the respiratory system?

Briefly explain each.

  1. Conducting zone: system of tubes that allows for the passage/direction of air.
  2. Respiratory zone: the part responsible for gas exchange

7

What are the main parts of the respiratory system anatomy?

  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Lung

8

The respiratory system is located in what cavity?

What other major organ is in this cavity?

  • Pleural cavity
  • The heart

9

The nasal cavity is lined with

respiratory and olfactiory epithelium

10

Both epithelium of the nasal cavity are _______.

pseudostratified ciliated

11

What dles the respiratory epithelium do to the air coming in?

Warms it

12

What are the characteristics of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity?

  • Contain odor binding proteins on cillia
  • Proteins are attached to sensory neurons
  • Provides sense of smell

13

The pharynx stretches from the _______ to the _______.

nasal cavity, larynx

14

What are the three parts of the Pharynx?

  1. Nasopharynx
  2. Oropharynx
  3. Laryngopharynx

15

What are the characteristics of the nasopharynx?

  • Sits above soft palate
  • Eustachian tube (middle ear) enters here
  • Pharyngeal tonsils are located here

16

Where is the oropharynx?

It is the space between the soft palate and epiglottis

17

What are the characteristics of the laryngopharynx?

  • Posterior to larynx
  • combines with mouth
  • passes both air and food
  • lined with stratified squamous epithelium
  • leads to both larynx and esophagus

18

What prevents food from going down the trachea? Where is it found? 

  • Epiglottis
  • It is found in the laryngopharyx

19

Where are the vocal chords found?

How do the work?

  • Larynx
  • Air passes over the vocal cords to create sound

20

Why does the trachea have cartilage rings?

To ensure that the trachea stays open to allow for the passage of air

21

The bronchial tree consists of...

  • Trachea
  • Main bronchi
  • Secondary bronchi
  • Brioncoles

22

What is the main difference between bronchi and broncioles?

Broncioles don't have cartilage so they have the ability to expand and contract.

23

Bronchioles form into _______ which end in _______.

Terminal bronchioles, alveoli

24

Everything prior to the terminal bronchioles is considered part of the _______.

conducting zone

25

The lungs are a collection of...

bronchioles and alveoli

26

Terminal bronchioles and alveoli are part of the _______.

Respiratory Zone

27

What are the characteristics of the Alveoli?

  • site of gas exchange
  • compeltely covered with capillaries
  • alveoli/cappillaries are the interface that allows for gas exchange
  • Composed of three different types of cells

28

What 3 types of cells are found in the alveoli?

Briefly describe each.

  1. Simple Squamous (type 1): line air sac, allow for diffusion
  2. Great alveolar cells (type 2): cuboidal cells that secrete a substance called surfactant
  3. Alveolai Macrophage: Phagocytotic cells that engulf debris

29

Surfactant is a combination of...

phospholipids and proteins that coat alveolar walls and reduce surface tension

30

The lungs are encased within the

Pleural cavity