Ch 22: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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The main function of the respiratory system is 

ventilation of the lungs to acquire O2 expel CO2


What are the other 8 functions of the respiratory system?

  1. Gas exchange
  2. Communication
  3. Olfaction
  4. Blood acid/base balance
  5. Blood pressure regulation
  6. Blood and Lymph circulatioin
  7. Blood filtration
  8. Expulsion of abdominal content


Blood acid-base balance is regulated by

the exchange of Oand CO2


How does the respiratory system help with blood and lymph circulation?

The rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm helps circulate them.


How does the respiratory system help with expulsion of abdominal content?

Taking a breath before urination, defication or regurgitation increses internal pressure assisting in expulsion effort


What are the two zones of the respiratory system?

Briefly explain each.

  1. Conducting zone: system of tubes that allows for the passage/direction of air.
  2. Respiratory zone: the part responsible for gas exchange


What are the main parts of the respiratory system anatomy?

  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Lung


The respiratory system is located in what cavity?

What other major organ is in this cavity?

  • Pleural cavity
  • The heart


The nasal cavity is lined with

respiratory and olfactiory epithelium


Both epithelium of the nasal cavity are _______.

pseudostratified ciliated


What dles the respiratory epithelium do to the air coming in?

Warms it


What are the characteristics of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity?

  • Contain odor binding proteins on cillia
  • Proteins are attached to sensory neurons
  • Provides sense of smell


The pharynx stretches from the _______ to the _______.

nasal cavity, larynx


What are the three parts of the Pharynx?

  1. Nasopharynx
  2. Oropharynx
  3. Laryngopharynx


What are the characteristics of the nasopharynx?

  • Sits above soft palate
  • Eustachian tube (middle ear) enters here
  • Pharyngeal tonsils are located here


Where is the oropharynx?

It is the space between the soft palate and epiglottis


What are the characteristics of the laryngopharynx?

  • Posterior to larynx
  • combines with mouth
  • passes both air and food
  • lined with stratified squamous epithelium
  • leads to both larynx and esophagus


What prevents food from going down the trachea? Where is it found? 

  • Epiglottis
  • It is found in the laryngopharyx


Where are the vocal chords found?

How do the work?

  • Larynx
  • Air passes over the vocal cords to create sound


Why does the trachea have cartilage rings?

To ensure that the trachea stays open to allow for the passage of air


The bronchial tree consists of...

  • Trachea
  • Main bronchi
  • Secondary bronchi
  • Brioncoles


What is the main difference between bronchi and broncioles?

Broncioles don't have cartilage so they have the ability to expand and contract.


Bronchioles form into _______ which end in _______.

Terminal bronchioles, alveoli


Everything prior to the terminal bronchioles is considered part of the _______.

conducting zone


The lungs are a collection of...

bronchioles and alveoli


Terminal bronchioles and alveoli are part of the _______.

Respiratory Zone


What are the characteristics of the Alveoli?

  • site of gas exchange
  • compeltely covered with capillaries
  • alveoli/cappillaries are the interface that allows for gas exchange
  • Composed of three different types of cells


What 3 types of cells are found in the alveoli?

Briefly describe each.

  1. Simple Squamous (type 1): line air sac, allow for diffusion
  2. Great alveolar cells (type 2): cuboidal cells that secrete a substance called surfactant
  3. Alveolai Macrophage: Phagocytotic cells that engulf debris


Surfactant is a combination of...

phospholipids and proteins that coat alveolar walls and reduce surface tension


The lungs are encased within the

Pleural cavity