Ch 24: Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance Flashcards Preview

A&P II: BIO426 > Ch 24: Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 24: Fluid, Electrolyte, pH Balance Deck (53)
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1

Fluid, electrolyte and pH balance are critical in _____.

maintaining homeostasis.

2

Fluid balance refers to...

H2O balance

3

Our body's are __% water

55%

4

__% of water in the body is intracellular.

65%

5

__% of water in the body is extracellular.

35%

6

The extraceluar fluid of our bodies consists of

  • water
  • blood/lymph
  • tissue fluid
  • transcelluar (moving between cells)

7

Water moves by _____.

osmosis

8

Water balance is directly related to _____.

electrolyte concentration

9

Water is always seeking _______ with the cells around it.

equilibrium

10

What are two sources of water for our bodies?

  1. Preformed Water... External, that is ingested
  2. Metabloic water as a result of cellular respiration

11

What are four ways our bodies get rid of excess water?

  1. Urine
  2. Feces
  3. Sweat
  4. Cutaneous transpiration - The insensible evaporation of water vapor through the skin.

12

How is the intake of water regulated?

  • Osmoreceptors: have the ability to respond to rising levels of osmolarity and produce ADH in response to retain H2O
  • Thirst receptors: stimulate H2O intake

13

How is water output regulated?

  • via urine production and always in conjunction with electrolytes

14

Balance prefix:

Define Hypo

too little

15

Balance prefix:

Define Hyper

too much

16

Balance prefix:

Define Norma

physiological levels (normal)

17

An electrolyte is a substance that...

conducts electricity when dissolved in water and are essential for a number of bodily functions.

18

Many automatic processes in the body rely on a small electric current to function, and _____ provide this charge.

electrolytes

19

Electrolytes interact with each other and the cells in the _____, _____, and _____.

tissues, nerves, and muscles.

20

The electrolytes in human bodies include:

  • sodium

  • potassium

  • calcium

  • chloride

  • phosphate

  • bicarbonate

  • magnesium

**The first five were given to us by professor and are testable. The last two I added in for general knowledge and are not part of the test.*** 

21

The electrolyte Sodium (Na) produces _____ and _____.

osmolarity and action potentials

22

The electrolyte Sodium (Na) is moved by _____, which cause _____ gradients around a cell.

 

Produces osmolarity and action potentials

Moved by at the cell membrane 

imbalances are rare

Na/K+/ATP pumps, elecrical 

23

Potassium (K+) is most abundant in _____.

intercellular fluid

24

Potassium is involved in...

  • active transport
  • resting potential

25

Explain how Na/K+ exchange occurs.

  • Na moves into transmembrane protein. 
  • When protein is full of Na, ATP releases phosphate, which attaches to the intercellular side of the transmembrane protein triggering the gate to open and release the Na.
  • Extracelluar K+ then moves into the open gate and when the protein is again full, the phosphate molecule is released, and the gate opens to let the K+ inter the cell
  • K and Na are both positively charged creating an action potential at the cell surface

26

Potassium balance is linked to _____.

sodium

27

Potassium is regulated by _____.

Aldosterone

28

What are the two imbalances of Potassium called?

  1. Hyperkalemia
  2. Hypokalemia

29

What are the characteristics of hyperkalemia?

  • high potassium levels caused by ruptured cells
  • high levels of potassium can excite neurons and short circuit cardiovascular system

30

What are the characteristics of hypokalemia?

  • low levels of potassium
  • caused by diet deficiencies
  • causes neurons to be less excitable resulting in slower reaction to things