Fluid, electrolyte and pH balance are critical in _____.
Fluid balance refers to...
Our body's are __% water
__% of water in the body is intracellular.
__% of water in the body is extracellular.
The extraceluar fluid of our bodies consists of
- tissue fluid
- transcelluar (moving between cells)
Water moves by _____.
Water balance is directly related to _____.
Water is always seeking _______ with the cells around it.
What are two sources of water for our bodies?
- Preformed Water... External, that is ingested
- Metabloic water as a result of cellular respiration
What are four ways our bodies get rid of excess water?
- Cutaneous transpiration - The insensible evaporation of water vapor through the skin.
How is the intake of water regulated?
- Osmoreceptors: have the ability to respond to rising levels of osmolarity and produce ADH in response to retain H2O
- Thirst receptors: stimulate H2O intake
How is water output regulated?
- via urine production and always in conjunction with electrolytes
physiological levels (normal)
An electrolyte is a substance that...
conducts electricity when dissolved in water and are essential for a number of bodily functions.
Many automatic processes in the body rely on a small electric current to function, and _____ provide this charge.
Electrolytes interact with each other and the cells in the _____, _____, and _____.
tissues, nerves, and muscles.
The electrolytes in human bodies include:
**The first five were given to us by professor and are testable. The last two I added in for general knowledge and are not part of the test.***
The electrolyte Sodium (Na) produces _____ and _____.
osmolarity and action potentials
The electrolyte Sodium (Na) is moved by _____, which cause _____ gradients around a cell.
Produces osmolarity and action potentials
Moved by at the cell membrane
imbalances are rare
Na/K+/ATP pumps, elecrical
Potassium (K+) is most abundant in _____.
Potassium is involved in...
- active transport
- resting potential
Explain how Na/K+ exchange occurs.
- Na moves into transmembrane protein.
- When protein is full of Na, ATP releases phosphate, which attaches to the intercellular side of the transmembrane protein triggering the gate to open and release the Na.
- Extracelluar K+ then moves into the open gate and when the protein is again full, the phosphate molecule is released, and the gate opens to let the K+ inter the cell
- K and Na are both positively charged creating an action potential at the cell surface
Potassium balance is linked to _____.
Potassium is regulated by _____.
What are the two imbalances of Potassium called?
What are the characteristics of hyperkalemia?
- high potassium levels caused by ruptured cells
- high levels of potassium can excite neurons and short circuit cardiovascular system
What are the characteristics of hypokalemia?