Ch 26: Metabolism Flashcards Preview

A&P II: BIO426 > Ch 26: Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 26: Metabolism Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

Metabolism is the breaking down of _____ to produce...

  • molecules
  • ATP cellular energy

2

Metabolism requires the use of the three macronutrients, which are...

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Lipids
  3. Proteins

3

_____ is the universal cellular energy molecule.

Glucose

4

The brain uses only _____ as energy.

glucose

5

What is glycolysis?

The breakdown of glycogen to release glucose, which, in turn, will be broken down by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.

6

Where does glycolysis occur?

In the cell cytoplasm.

7

In glycolysis, 1 glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of _____, and releases __ ATP.

pyruvate, two

8

In an anaerobic environment, pyruvate is broken down into _____ and produces __ ATP.

lactic acid, no

9

In an aerobic environment, pyruvate is broken down into _____.

Acetyl Coenzyme A

(Acetyl CoA)

10

When a pyruvate molecule is broken down into Acetyl CoA, it goes into the _____, which produces __ ATP.

KREB cycle, 36

11

Glycogen is a _____ that is stored in _____ as chains of _____.

polysaccharide, liver, glucose

12

Too much glucose in the system results in...

glycogenesis

13

What is glycogenesis?

The building of glycogen from extra glucose molecules

14

What is Gluconeogenesis?

Takes place in liver to make clucose from amino acids

15

Starch is made of chains of _____ that is broken down by the anzyme _____ in saliva, and absorbed by _____ as _____.

glucose, amylase, small intestines, glucose

16

Lipogensis is the production of _____ from excess _____ and stored in _____.

triglycerides, glucose molecules, adipose tissue

17

Lipolysis is

the breaking down of triglycerides into glycerol and its 3 fatty acids.

18

In lipolysis, glycerol is broken down ultimately into...

pyruvate

19

In lipolysis, the 3 fatty acids go through _____ and break down into _____.

betaoxidation, alot of ATP

20

In lipolysis, the 3 fatty acids are not sugars and cannot go through _____.

glycolosis

21

Excess acteyl CoA goes through _____.

ketogenesis

22

In ketogenesis, metabolism of Acetyl CoA in the liver produces _____.

keytone bodies

23

In ketogenesis, what happens to keytone bodies sent through kreb cycle if carbs are low?

keytone bodies will accumulate leading to ketosis

24

What are some examples of proteins the body makes?

  • antibodies
  • enzymes
  • chemical signals/hormones
  • colligen

25

In protein synthesis, what is the role of DNA?

to hold information to make proteins and tell cells which amino acids must be linked together

26

Proteins can be used as a source of energy by the process of _____ in wich proteins are broken down or digested into _____.

Proteinlysis, amino acids

27

In proteinlysis, amino acids are _____, which results in ____ being left over and metabloized to produce ____.

deanimated, sugar, ATP

28

In proteinlysis, proteins are broken down and deaminated into ____ and ____.

sugar, an amin group

29

Amin group combined with COresutls in...

urea

30

The metablic rate is...

  • how fast the body produces energy from macronutrients
  • amount of energy released per unit of time
  • effected by physical activity, more activity = more energy used
  • effected by mental state