Main purposes of the female reproductive system are...
- Production of gametes (ovum)
- Support development of offspring
- Deliver offspring
- Feed offspring
- Provide hormones to support all activities
The main parts of the female reproductive systerm are...
- Fallopian tubes
The ovary is the site of...
The _____ is the outer membrane of the ovary that is continuous with the peritneum.
What are the two divisions of the ovary, and their purposes.
- Cortex; gamete site of production
- Medulla; blood supply
Characteristics of the fallopian tubes
- Tubes leading from ovary to uterus
- Path of travel for secondary oocyte to be fertilized or die
What is the path of of the secondary oocyte from the ovary?
Ovary > Fimbriae > Infundibulum > Fallopian tube > Uterus
Where does fertilization occur?
In the fallopian tube
How does the egg travel in the fallopian tube?
Through the combination of its cilliated epithelum and smooth muscle contraction.
The uterus is the site of ______ and is a muscular chamber made of __ layers.
offspring development, 3
What are the three layers of the uterus?
- Perimetrium; outer serus layer
- Myometrium; muscle layer
- Endometrium; internal lining
The endometrium consists of __ layers called...
- 2 layers
- Stratum functionalis
- Stratum basal
Describe the relationship between the stratum functionalis and basal layers of the endometrium.
- Stratum functionalis is the superficial layer and is shed each menstrual period.
- Stratum basal is the deeper layer that generates a new stratum functionalis every cycle.
Explain the characteristics of the uterine artery
- Branch of internal iliac artery, which goes to the
- arcuate artery, which goes to the
- Spiral artery
Describe the function of the spiral artery
- Can constrict or dilate
- Causes change in thickness of the stratum functionalis
- Controls uterine cycle
What role do estrogen and progesterone play in the uterine cycle?
There secretion causes the sprial artery to dilate, which causes the growth of the strum functionalis.
What is the purpose to the growth of the stratum functionalis?
To prepare the uterus for implantation.
What produces the estrogen and progesterone for the uterine cycle?
How long does the corpus luteum live?
15 days after ovulation
What happens when the corpus luteum dies?
Estrogen and progesterone levels drop.
What happens as a result of the reduction of estrogen and progesterone when the corpus luteum dies?
The spiral artery shuts down and stops supplying blood to the stratum functionalis, which is then shed in menstruation.
What are the characteristics of the cervix?
- Opening of the uterus
- Contains the cervical canal
- Leads to vagina
What are the characteristics of the vagina?
- Dorsal to and separate from the urethra
- Inner walls contain rugae, folded membrane that work as friction ridges
What is the purpose of the vagina?
Intercourse and Birth
_____ control the ovarian cycle.
What are the 3 phases of the ovarian cycle?
- Fallicular phase
- Ovulation phase
- Luteal phase
During the fallicular phase, follicle cells secrete _____, which inhibits _____, the reduction of which stimulates the release of _____, which stimulates ovulation.
estrogen, FSH, LH
What happens at the ovulation phase?
The egg is released to the fallopian tube and the follicle layer becomes the corpus luteum.
What occurs during the luteal phase?
- Corpus luteum releases estrogen and progesterone until it dies
- E and P promote endometrium growth and inhibits FSH and LH so the egg can implant if fertilized
- Corpus luteum dies
- E and P drop, cutting off blood supply to endometrium
- Endometrium sheds in menstruation
- FSH + LH increase and start a new ovarian cycle
What two possiblites occur after ovulation?