Ch 26: Nutrition Flashcards Preview

A&P II: BIO426 > Ch 26: Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 26: Nutrition Deck (47)
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1

The purpose of nutrition and metabolism is to...

acquire the raw materials to produce energy for growth, repair, and development of all aspects of the body.

2

Define what is meant by energy balance.

Input = Output

(You use what you eat without surplus or shortage)

3

Appetite is...

a desire to ingest food that is regulated by a number of hormones and gut proteins

4

What are the two types of appetite?

  1. Short-term
  2. Long-term

 

5

What are the three hormones that regulate short-term appetite?

  1. Ghrelin
  2. Peptide 44
  3. Cholecystokinin (CCK)

6

Characteristics of Ghrelin?

  • It is an Orexogenic hormone
  • Produced by empty stomach
  • Tells brain you need to eat

7

Characteristics of Peptide 44?

  • Secreted by stomach enteroendocrine cells
  • It is an Anorexigenic hormone 

8

Characteristics of Cholecystokinin (CCK)?

  • Enteroendocrine cells secrete
  • It is an Anorexigenic hormone

9

What does an orexogenic hormone do?

  • Promotes hunger
  • Tells you to eat

10

What does an Anorexigenic hormone do?

  • Promotes feeling of fullness/satisfaction
  • Tells you to stop eating

11

What are the two hormones involved in long-term appetite?

  1. Leptin
  2. Insulin

12

Characteristics of Leptin?

  • Anorexigenic hormone
  • Appetite supressor
  • Secreted by adipose dissue

13

Characteristics of Insulin?

  • Promotes glucose uptake in cells
  • Appetite suppressant
  • Anorexigenic hormone

14

What is the neurotransmitters role in appetite management?

  • It involves the release of dopamine when you eat and makes you feel good.
  • It can over-ride all other hormones involved in appetite regulation

15

Term

What is the difference between calorie and Calorie?

  • calorie is a unit of energy used in physics
  • Calorie is a unit of energy in nutrition/metabolism and is actually kilocalories when compred to physics calorie

16

What are macronutrients?

Parts of food that are going to be broken down to release energy.

17

What are the three major macronutrients?

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Lipids
  3. Proteins

18

Carbohydrates contain

  • Simple sugars
  • Polysaccharides
  • Fiber

19

Simple sugars contain _____ which is used for _____.

glucose, cellular energy

20

Ploysaccharides contain chains of _____ like startch, which can be broken down into _____ by _____.

glucose, glocose, amylase

21

Fiber is made of chains of glucose, but their arrangement makes them _____.

non-digestible

22

Fiber is insoluble and will bulk up waste which...

stimulates stretch receptors in the colon, triggering movement toward elimination.

23

Pectin, a _____ , is indigestible and soluble which is not so good for waste movement in the colon.

Why?

  • polysaccharide
  • It does not bulk up and cause the large intestines to stretch

24

Lipds are also known as...

triglycerides

25

Lipids are _____, and don't dissolve in water.

hydrophobic

26

Lipds are made of ____, of which three _____ acids are attached.

glucose, fatty

27

Lipids are densely ____ and do not absorb ____.

packed, H2O

28

Lipds are required for...

  • Vitamin absorption
  • Cholesterol production
  • Phospholipid production

29

What is meant by essential fatty acids?

  • The body cannot synthesize them
  • Must be ingested
  • All can be found in animal products
  • Some can be found in plants

30

Lipds are carried in...

lipoproteins