Blood is made of what two parts?
- Formed Elements
Plasma is composed of...
90-95% water with the rest being dissolved substances.
Name the five items that make up the dissolved substance of plasma.
The formed elements of blood are composed of...
- Red blood cells / Erythrocytes
- White blood cells / Leukocytes
- Platelets / Thrombocytes
_______ stem cells in bone marrow that receive _______ initiate the production of erythrocytes.
_______ stem cells in bone marrow that receive _______ initiate the production of leukocytes.
Platelets are fragments of...
_______ trigger megakaryocytes to initiate the process of creating thrombocytes/platelets.
Hemopoetic stem cells can become ______ or _______.
Erythrocytes or Leukocytes
The main purpose of a red blood cell is to...
carry O2 to the tissues and organs of the body
The main purpose of white blood cells is to...
work with the immune system to fight pathogens and infections
What are the 3 stages of blood clotting?
- Vascular spasm
- Platelet plug formation
Explain the stage of vascular spasm in the blood clotting process.
- An injury stimulates pain receptors innervating nearby blood vessels to constrict.
- This vasoconstriction is only effective for small blood vessels and lasts only a couple of minutes.
- Platelets release serotonin maintaining vasoconstriction long enough for the last two stages of blood clotting to take effect
Serotonin is a chemical _______.
Explain the stage of platelet plug formation.
- With an injury to a blood vessel, the collogen fibers of the vessel wall are exposed
- Platelets attach to these fibers and immediately grow pseudopods that adhere to the vessel wall and other platelets
- The pseudopods contract and draw the walls of the vessel together
- The mass of contracted platelets is the platelet plug
The coagulation stage of blood clotting is needed for...
Larger injuries where platelet plug needs reinforcement
Explain the stage of coagulation in the blood clotting process.
- Fibrinectin in blood plasma is converted to fibrin via a thrombin enzyme in platelets
- The fibrin then creates a mesh at the injury and closes it
What are the two components of blood clotting and briefly explain each.
- Extrinsic: clotting contributers found outside the blood such as the collagen fibers in the blood vessel walls
- Intraisic: clotting contributers found inside the blood such as thrombin and fibronectin and platelets
Fibrinogen is a precursor to _______ which is a factor used in creating clots.
Prothrombin is the precursor to _______, a secondary clot forming protein