What are the 7 functions of the urinary system?
- Excretion of cellular waste
- Regulation of water balance
- Regulation of electrolytes
- Secretion of erythropoietin
- Regulation of produces calcitriol (for bone remodeling)
- Clears hormones and drugs from blood stream
- Detoxifies free radicals
The urinary system's regulation of water balance maintains...
A high amount of hydrogen in blood results in a _____ blood pH, which indicates the blood is more _____.
What electrolytes are action potentials?
What electrolytes effect osmolarity?
What electrolytes effect blood pH?
Erythropoietin is responsible for...
the production of RBCs
Calcitrol is used for
Starvation can produce...
glucose from amino acids
What are the four parts of that make up the gross anatomy of the urinary system?
Give the characteristics of each.
- Kidneys: main organ, produce urine
- Ureters: tubes leading from kidneys to bladder
- Urinary bladder: stores urine
- Urethra: pee tube, path of exit
Kidneys are located in the _____ area of the _____ cavity.
The pertoneum is the...
serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs.
True or False
The kidneys are inside the perotoneum.
What is meant by the kidneys are retroperotoneal?
That they sit behind and outside the perotoneum.
What are the three membrane layers that surround the kidneys?
Give characteristics of each.
- Renal fascia: dense connective tissue holding kidneys in place
- Perineal fat capsule: protects kidneys
- Fibrous capsule: thin, transparent membrane that protects against infection
What are the four main parts that make up the internal kidney's gross anatomy?
- Cortex: contains nephrons
- Medulla: contains pyramidal tubules and nephron loops
- Renal Pelvis: formed from the convergence of minor calyx and major calyx
- Hilus: indentation in the surface of a kidney, where blood vessels, ducts, nerve fibers, etc. enter or leave it.
What function do the nephrons of the kidneys serve?
What are the two main parts of a nephron?
- Renal capsule
- Renal tubules
What are characteristics of the renal capsule?
- contians Bowman's capsule (glomerulus)
- point of filtration
- always found in cortex of kidney
What three things are the renal tubules involved in?
What are the four renal tubules and which function(s) do they serve?
- Proximal convoluted tubule: Reabsorption
- Loop of Henle (renal loop): Concentration
- Distal convoluted tubule: Reabsorption/Secretion
- Collecting duct: Reabsorption/Secretion
What are the two types of nephrons?
- Cortical nephrons
- Juxtamedullary nephrons
What are the main characteristics of a cortical nephron?
- Fed by peritubular cappilaries in cortex around capsule, PCT and DCT
- Shorter loop that just dips into medullary layer of kidney
What are the main characteristics of a juxtamedullary nephron?
- Fed by vasa recta cappilaries in medula around nephron loop
- Longer loop that dips deeply into medullary layer of kidney
What is the blood flow from the heart to the glomerulus of the kidney?
- Renal a.
- Segmental a.
- Interlobar a.
- Arcuate a.
- Cortical radiate a.
- Afferent arteriole
What is the blood flow from the glomerulus to the heart?
- Efferent arteriole
- Peritubular capillaries/Vasa recta (pending nephron type)
- Cortical radiate v.
- Arcuate v.
- Interlobar v.
- Renal v.
- Inferior vena cava
What are the three functions of the nephron?
- Reabsorption and Secretion
Where does filtration take place in the kidney?
The glomerulus is...
the capillary within the bowman's capsule
Describe the arterioles of the glomerulus.