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Flashcards in AB-Renal Deck (70)
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1

the urinary system consists of:

kidneys
ureters
bladder

2

the principle functions of the urinary system:

excreting waste
regulating blood composition

3

normal kidney measurements:

9-12 cm long, 5 cm wide, 2.5 cm thick
(a difference of 1.5-2cm in kidney lengths is concerning)

4

the layers surrounding the kidney from lateral to medial

Gerota's Fascia
Perinephric Fat
True Capsule
Cortex
Sinus: Medulla and Renal Pyramids

5

The Kidneys are located in...

retroperitoneum
(posterior to the peritoneum lining the abdominal cavity)

6

the left renal A is located at...
the right renal A is located at...

4 o'clock
10 o'clock

7

where do kidneys develop and when do the move?

the developing kidneys ascend from the pelvis at 9 weeks and move to their normal location

8

Cortex

where veins, arteries, Bowman's Capsule, and convoluted tubules are located
responsible for filtration of blood

9

Medulla

Responsible for absorption

10

Arcuate Arteries

located at the base of the pyramid
separates the medulla from the cortex

11

Nephrons

Functioning unit of the Kidneys
filters the blood and produces urine

12

2 main structures of Nephron

renal tubules
renal corpuscle

13

Renal Corpuscle

network of capillaries (glomerulus)
surrounded by a cup like structure (Bowman's Capsule)

14

afferent arteriole:
efferent arteriole:

bring blood into glomerulus
takes blood away/leaving glomerulus

15

Juxtaglomerular apparatus:

structure that helps regulate blood pressure in the kidney

16

loop of Henle

goes down into the renal pyrimids

17

3 Constriction Typically seen along ureters

1. where ureters leave the renal pelvis
2. where it kinks as it crosses the pelvic brim
3. where it pierces the bladder wall (UVJ)

18

Bladder

large muscular bag, the wall should measure < 3mm in trans when stretched, posterior and lat opening for the ureters to enter, anterior opening for urethra

19

UVJ

Ureterovesicular Junction
where ureters enter the bladder
most common site for kidney stones

20

vascular supply

aorta
renat arteries
segmental, interlobar, arcuate
Afferent in > Bowman's > cleaned (Glomerulus) > Efferent to Vein

21

Urine Formation and Flow

nephrons remove waste thanks to the glomerulus. filtered fluid passes renal corpuscle, renal tubule. waste products pass into collecting ducts. Ducts drain into pyramids, down minor calyces into major calyces, into the renal pelvis, down ureters and into the bladder.

22

vascular supply to ureters

proximal- renal artery
mid- testicular/ovarian artery
distal (near bladder)- superior vesical

23

Lab Tests for Renal Disease

Urinalysis Hematocrit:
Urine pH Hemaglobin
Specific Gravity Protein
Blood/Hematuria Serum Creatine
Creatine
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

24

CRF

Chronic Renal Faiure
most common cause is Diabetes

25

Normal Variants

Column of Bertin
Dromedary Hump
Junctional Parenchymal
Fetal Lobulation
Sinus Lipomatosis
Extrarenal Pelvis
Horseshoe Kidney

26

Renal Anomalies

Renal Agenesis
Renal Hypolasia: incomplete devel. of kidney. Fewer than 5 calyces
Incomplete Duplication
Double Collecting system
Renal ectopia
polycystic

27

Ureterocele

cyst like enlargement of the lower end of the ureter

28

Bladder Pathology

diverticula
cystitis
bladder calculi
bladder tumors

29

Diverticula

appears as a pouch-like herniation of the bladder wall
congenital or acquired

30

cystitis

thickening of bladder wall, usually form infection
more common in females