OB Test Ch. 54, 58, 59 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in OB Test Ch. 54, 58, 59 Deck (54)
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Free hand acquisition

same as manual acquisition. original 3-D. This is the the manual slide of the probe along the pt skin to collect anatomy as a series of slices. pg. 1207


Transparent rendering

Transparent rendering looks beyond the surface of the anatomy to reveal structures located within. Pg 1212


What are the 2 classifications of rendering?

Transparent and surface: Surface is displaying the surface detail like the fetal face. Transparent is looking beyond the surface displaying anatomy within. WB 414


What are the 2 main methods to acquire the data and what are the differences between them?

manual and automatic. In manual you move the probe to get the data and in automatic you don't move the probe. pg 1207


What is another name for x-ray mode?

transparent rendering Pg 1212


What are the 3D small pixels elements referred to as?

voxels pg 1212


What is the best plane we use to see the fetal face?

2D - coronal plane Pg 1209 green box on page 1271 has more info


What might hinder facial screening?

(ex not being able to see both sides of the brain bc the skull shadows)
Fetal position, low fluid shadowing of other structures, probe positioning pg. 1210


What is craniosynostosis?

Premature closure of any or all 6 cranial sutures. Abnormally shaped clover leaf skull (Kleeblattschadel). This is associated with skeletal dysplasias (most notable is thanatophoric) and ventriculomegaly. pg. 1273


What could happen with the malformation of the lymphatic system?

This could lead to single or multiloculated lymph filled cavities of the neck (cystic hygroma). This abnormal collection of lymph causes distention of the lymph cavities which can lead to hydrops and even fetal death. pg. 1284


When you look at the nasal triad, what is included in the view of what you are looking at?

Nose, lips, nostrils, palate. eval of nasal triad should include nostril symmetry, nasal septum integrity, and continuity of the upper lip to exclude cleft lip and palate. pg. 1280


What is cleft lip and palate?

Failure of the lip/palate to close at the midline. Can involve upper lip, hard palate, soft palate, lower orbits, and out to the ears. Can be bilateral, unilateral, an isolated defect. Pg 1281


What is epignathus?

This is a teratoma located in the oropharynx
(middle part of the pharynx behind the mouth). The fetal swallowing is impaired resulting in hydrammios; small stomaches may be present. These masses are complex and contain solid, cystic, or calcified components. pg. 1282


What is the most common neck mass?

cystic hygroma colli (lymphatic obstruction) pg.1283


What percentage of cystic hygromas are associated with chromosomal abnormalities?

50% pg. 1285


What prominence does the bridge of the nose originate from?

Frontal prominence P 1269


What type of abnormality might you see with proboscis?

Alobar holoprosencephaly pg.1271


At what weeks should we do an NT?

11 wk - 13 wk 6 days Pg 1275


What is the most common congenital anomaly of the face?

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate pg 1281


What are some differential diagnoses with cystic hygroma?

Meningomylocele, encephalocele, nuchal edema, brachial cleft cyst, cystic teratoma, hemangioma, thryoglossal duct cyst pg 1286


What is a small chin?

Micrognathia pg 1275


Are facial anomalies typically isolated defects or are they associated with other abnormalities or syndromes?

facial anomalies are heterogenous and occur as isolated defects or as part of a syndrome p 1271


What is a big forehead?

Trigonocephaly pg 1273


What syndrome is associated with an ear malformation

Goldenhars syndrome
Roberts syndrome (small ears)
Nager acrofacial dysostosis syndrome and Treacher Collins syndrome (inadequate development of the ear) pg 1277


Cleft lip without cleft palate is more highly identified in which ethnic group?

Native Americans pg 1281


What is fetal goiter?

thyromegaly; it appears as symmetrical, solid, homogeneous mass arising anterior fetal neck (in region of thyroid). whenever there is maternal thyroid disease check fetus. pg. 1286


Congenital anomalies of the face occur in 1 and how many births

600 pg 1267


Typically if you have an isolated unilateral cleft lip, which side does it usually occur on?

Left pg 1281


What is a neck teratoma?

usually unilateral and complex (cystic, solid, echogenic). Located anteriorly. Color Doppler may help differentiate this mass from atypical hygromas or other cystic masses. Can cause "star gazing" Will have color Pg 1287


What is anencephaly?

Absence of the brain and skull Pg 1290