2009. Zwicker And Harris. A Reflection On Motor Learning Theory In Paediatric Occupational Therapy Practice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2009. Zwicker And Harris. A Reflection On Motor Learning Theory In Paediatric Occupational Therapy Practice Deck (10)
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1

What could a 4 part framework of motor theory look like?

(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

1. Blocked practice during cognitive stage- so child can understand task

2. Start practicing part of the task, and the move to full skill in context

3. Describe the type of explicitly feedback provided during the cognitive phase

4. During associate stage could highlight variability of practice with a random practice schedules, with greater emphasis on implicit feedback

2

Definition of motor learning according to Schmidt + Lee 2005


(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

A set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for movement

3

Explain Adams (1971) closed-loop theory- motor learning theory ?

- posits that sensory feedback is required for learning - but been discredited by studies with humans and animals that have shown that motor learning is possible without sensory feedback

-assumes motor learning is enhanced by repeated practice of same movement

4

Explain Schmidt 1975’s Schema therapy?

-proposed open-loop process

-suggested that generalised motor programs created from past moments, but did not explainer how motor planning formed

5

Explain Dynamic systems theory- Bernstein 1967?

(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

-considered contemporary theapy of motor learning

-rejection of hierarchical view of CNS

-less emphasis on CNS and more on interaction of three general systems: environment, person, and task

6

What are the three stages of learning that motor learning emphasis - Fitss and Posner 1967?

1. Cognitive stage- improved performance is contingent on individuals conscious effort to attend to task requirements (often through activiation through verbalisation)

2. Associate stage - learning from errors critical

3. Automaticity of motor learning- when little cognitive effort required to execute

7

When is automaticity achieved?

(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

It is evidenced when a motor skill can be achieved while doing another task (less brain activation is required)

8

What different types of tasks does motor theory outline?

(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

Discrete: recognisable beginning and end (throwing a ball)

Continuous: do not have inherent start and finish (walking)

Serial: collection of discrete (dressing)

9

What is one fo the most important tenants of motor learning?


(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

Practice!

10

What are the different types of feedback in motor learning?

(Zwicker + Harris 2009)

Intrinsic: information provided by sensory systems as a result of movement (not under conscious control)

Extrinsic: results from stated directions (eg. Verbal feedback)

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