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What is BDNF?

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor


Choreoathetosis defined as?

Is a movement disorder that causes involuntary twitching or writhing.

It combines the symptoms of chorea and athetosis



A hypothetical permanent change In the brain accounting for the existence of memory; a memory trace.



The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).


Lateralisation (in neuroscience):

Concept that each hemisphere of the brain is associated with specialized functions



Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.



The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.



Is the study of the changes of normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease or resulting from an abnormal syndrome.


What is the different types of movement problems associated with dyskinesia?

dystonia: twisting and repeating movements that can be painful

athetosis: slow, writhing movements

chorea: irregular, abrupt movements (rapid)


Noradrenaline, a modulators neurotransmitter, does what?

And what example?

Organic chemical generally used to mobilise the body and brain

Example: if you’re positive or negative surprised, noradrenaline pumps to the brain - “wow” or “watch out”


Dopamine, a modulator neurotransmitter, does what in the brain?

And what example?

A chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior.

For example, if you achieve a learning goal or feel successful dopamine is realised to tell the brain to “save that one”


Acetylcholine does what in the brain?

And what example?

Many functions including it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles.

Example: if you’re totally absorbed in a task this tells the brain to ‘try this one’ as it amplifies important new options for changing the brain- so it can improve the task


What is salience?

The quality of being particularly noticeable or important/prominence


Definition of cerebral palsy, including impact on movement and what other system?

Group of non-progressive disorders affecting movement, muscle one, and/or posture

And non-progressive disturbances of the development CNS

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