Flashcards in 2008. Kleim. Principles Of Experience-Development Neural Plasticity: Implications For Rehabiliation After Brain Injury Deck (19)
Do animal findings automatically translate to specific recommendations for the rehabilitation clinic?
No they don’t
Can neuroscience understand brain circuitary at the level for full rehabilitation- and what is needed?
No it is not yet (keep following this up!)
What is needed?
1. New neutrons (or neutrons?)
2. Neural connections in the right place
What three things drive changes in neuroplasiticity?
3. Cognitive experiences
What parts of the brain are involved in learning?
4. Neuronal networks
What is Kleim’s 10 principles of experience dependent neuroplasticity? (Which he claims is hardly a comprehensive list)
1. Use it or lose it
2. Use it and improve it
4. Repetition matters
5. Intensity matters
6. Time matters
7. Salience matters
8. Age matters
What are the key components to Kleims principle “use it or lose it”? (3 parts)
(Hint: neural circuits not what?)
1. Neural circuits not activity engaged for an extended period of period begin to degrade
2. Sensory deprivation rules not in total loss of cortical function bur rather reallocation of cortical territory
3. Function recovery may be support by shifting novel function to residual brain areas
What does Kliems principle “use it and improve it” entail?
(Hint: what can plasticity be induced by specifically? And where is profound plasticity found?)
-studies show how plasticity can be induced through extended training
-improvement in sensory and motor performance brought about by skill training is accompanied by profound plasticity within the cerebral cortex
What does Kleims neuroplasticity principle ‘specificity’ entail?
(Hint: does what to neural connection? And what example?)
Learning a specific skill acquision, rather than more general movement, requires to produce significant changes in patterns of neural connection
Example: Humans trained in skilled ankle movements exhibited enhanced cortical-spinal excitability compared to those trained to repeat unskilled movements
What does Kleims neuroplasticy principle “repetition matters” entail?
Repatition of newly learned behaviours are required to induce lasting neural changes
Some forms of plasticity require continued performance of that skill over time
What does Kleim’s neuroplasticity principle “intensity matters” entail?
(And how can it impact the induction of neuroplasticity?)
-intensive of stimulation can affect the induction of neuroplasiticity
-studies using Transcranial magnetic stimulation found certain pulses, not lower ones, sufficient to induce lasting increases in motor-evoked potential amplitudes
What does Kleim’s neuroplasticity principles ‘time matters’ entail?
(What example long been known? And how impact brain damage? And unintended impact? )
Entail: Certain types of plasticity appear to precede and even depend upon others
Example: long been known that consolidations of memories require time
Brain damage and time: there are major cascades of neuronal reactions to brain damage that occur over periods of months or longer
Unintended impact: time delays can also allow for greater establishment of compensatory behaviours
What does Kleim’s neuroplasticity principle “salience matters” entail?
-Entail: in order for an organisation to effectively function there must be a system in place to weigh the importance of any given experience that it can be endorsed
-Example: Research in auditory tones show that plasticity is dependent upon the salience of the experience
What neurotransmitter is pivotal in its contribution to salience of experiences?
Also pivotal in memory, arousal and attention
What does Kleims neuroplasticity principle “age matters” entail?
-normal ageing is associated with widespread neuronal and synaptic atrophy
What does Kleims neuroplasticity principle “Transference” entail?
-refers to the ability of plasticity within set of neural circuits to promote concurrent or sub-current plasticity
-use of electrical stimulation or other stimulations coupled with skill learning- augment strategy
What does Kleim’s neuroplasticity principle “interference” entail? (4 parts)
1. Plasticity can also serve to impede behavioural change
2. When stimulation is applied outside of the training experience there is potential to disrupt
3. It is also possible for behavioural experience to drive plasticity in direction that will impede optimal behavioural recovery
4. brain injury can change the neural response during learning and sensitivity to interference effects
What does Kleims neuroplasticity principle ‘specificity’ challenge?
Challenges the assumption of generalisation (research shows limits of generalisation of trained language abilities)
What does Kleims neuroplasticy principle “repetition matters” show?
That simple engagement does not drive neuroplasiticity