2019. Maier, Ballesteros And Vaerschure. Principles Of Neurorehabilitation After Stroke Based On Motor Learning And Brain Plasticity Mechanisms Flashcards Preview

Neuroplasticity > 2019. Maier, Ballesteros And Vaerschure. Principles Of Neurorehabilitation After Stroke Based On Motor Learning And Brain Plasticity Mechanisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2019. Maier, Ballesteros And Vaerschure. Principles Of Neurorehabilitation After Stroke Based On Motor Learning And Brain Plasticity Mechanisms Deck (21)
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What does spaced practice refer to in the principles of neurorehabilitation? And what do animal studies show?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Implied that training should be structured in time to include rest periods between repetitions or sessions

Animal studies suggest that spaced practice facilitates long-term memory formation


What does high dosage of rehabilitation possibly induce? (4 things)

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

1. Structural plastic changes

2. Reconfigure neural networks

3. Increase cortical excitability

4. Improve motor function and use


What does goal-oriented practice produce in what areas of the brain?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Higher activity in sensorimotor areas


What does variable practice correlate with for better performance at retention stages?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

With increased neuronal activity and connectivity in the areas of motor learning network during acquisition


What link is proposed that variable practice might be related to? And used for what?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Between the neuromodulator systems that control neuronal plasticity and novelty (dopaminegeric, cholinergic and noradrenergic)

used by brain stem activity system for controlling the global state of arousel


Regarding increasing the difficulty for neurorehabilitation what role should subjects have for best results?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

If subjects can control the task difficulty themselves their motor performance during acquisition and retention is significantly better


What can exposure to multi sensory feedback do in neurorehabilitation?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Enhance the ability to detect, discriminate and recognise sensory information


What is neuroentrainment and what sensory modality can be used?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

The study of the temporal relationships between the body’s movement and the rhythmic stimulation emerging from the environment

Any sensory modality can be used: auditory, visual, tactile or vestibular


What did a meta-analysis find for the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing? (Related to rhythmic cueing)

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

1. Improves walking velocity

2. Improves cadence

3. Improves stride length

4. Beneficial effects on improving upper limb impairment and function


What can punishment and reward do as explicit feedback for neurorehabilitation?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Punishment can speed up motor learning

Where as rewards ensure long-term retention


How can rewarding impact the basal ganglia?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

It can modulate the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia- and therefore bias attention to rewarding items


How can explicitly feedback impact the brain? (2 key impacts posited)

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

By teaching a global motor plan that is represented by higher-order neuronal networks

Which influences the cortical sensorimotor representations differences



How does implicit feedback enhance learning?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

From sensorimotor prediction errors- which can aid the adaption of unexceptional perturbations (de-activation)


What can auditory feedback do in neurorehabilation - as implicit feedback? (3 parts)

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Might foster the formation of an internal controlled- evidenced by stronger activation of prefrontal areas

Alternatively might promote reliance on proprioception

Unliked visual feedback, where people can become dependent on cue, concurrent auditory feedback does not seem to make people dependent


What does the “modulate effector selection” principle refer to in the 15 neurorehabilitation principle paper?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

A compensation strategy/learned non use- those to emerge because the spontaneous use of a limb does not cross the threshold level


What are mirror neurons and how does this relate to action observation?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Gained attended when neurons discharged when monkeys observed another individual executing a motor command, not doing it

Led to observations of humans performing a novel task performed better than same tasks that did not observe


What might the principle action observation do for neurorehabilitation?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Facilitate movement execution and motor learning by facilitating the excitability of the motor system


What is the thought impact of mirror therapy have on the brain?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Increase functional connectivity between cortical motor areas

Excite the neural connection between the two hemispheres


What enhances mirror therapy and action observation in motor learning/neurorehabiliation?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

The stronger the visual illusion - more agency ascribed to it

Respectively agency is reduced when prediction and outcome do not match


What parts of the brain are activated in both mental imagery and movement execution?

And do they activate similar learning-dependent brain changes?

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

Both recruit areas in premotor areas, somatosensory cortex, and subcortical areas

And yes both appear to induce similar changes in the brain


What new principles does the 2019 paper on 15 principles of neurorehabilation include that are not mentioned by Kleim in 2009?

(12 new, 3 similar)

(Maire, Ballesteros + Verchure 2019)

-spaced practice
-goal-oriented practice
-variable practice
-increased difficulty
-multi sensory stimulation
-rhythimic cueing
-explicit feedback
-implicit feedback
-modulate effector selection
-action observation
-mental practice
-social interaction

Similar ones include
-massed practice/repetitive
-Task-specific practice

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