Week Nine - Sensation & Perception Flashcards Preview

PSY224 - Behavioural & Cognitive Neuroscience (PART TWO) > Week Nine - Sensation & Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week Nine - Sensation & Perception Deck (72)
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1

What is Sensation?

The manner in which our sense organs receive information from the environment

2

What is Perception?

The manner by which people select, organise, and interpret sensations
- understanding a stimulus

3

What is Transduction?

The manner by which physical energy is converted into sensory neural impulses

4

What is the former sensory system organisation?

receptors > thalamus > primary sensory cortex > secondary sensory cortex > association cortex

COMPLETELY BOTTOM-UP APPROACH

5

What is the neocortex?

A thin sheet of cells covering the rest of the brain

6

How are cells organised in the neocortex?

Into 6 stereotypical layers.
The types of cells, their spatial arrangement and connections are pretty much the same in every part of the neocortex

7

What is the sensory organ and receptors for vision?

The eye
Rods and Cones
They transduce neural signals up the optic nerve

8

Explain the process in the primary visual pathway

retina - optic nerve - optic chiasm - thalamus - occipital lobe

9

Explain the process in the primary auditory pathway

auditory nerve - cochlear nuclei - superior olivary nuclei - inferior colliculus - medial geniculate - auditory cortex

10

What is the thalamus?

The gateway to the cortex (relay station)

11

What doesn't pass through the thalamus?

Olfaction

12

What is a Multisensory Integration area?

The area in which information is assimilated from various individual sensory systems and coordinated

13

How does hearing occur?

It occurs via sound waves, which result from rapid changes in air pressure caused by vibrating objects

14

What is pitch? (amplitude)

Frequency of vibration measures in hertz

15

What is Loudness? (frequency)

Function of sound wave intensity

16

What does timbre do? (complexity)

Provides information about the nature or complexity of the sound

17

Where are primary auditory receptors located? What are they?

In the cochlea (inner ear)

They are tiny hair cells that convert sound energy to neural impulses and send them along to the primary auditory cortex

18

What is the route of transduction of auditory information?

cochlea > superior olives > colliculi > thalamus > primary auditory cortex

19

What is the external ear called?

The pinna

20

What is the name of the eardrum?

Tympanic membrane

21

What is the middle ear?

A hollow region between the eardrum and the cochlea, containing the ossicles

22

What are ossicles?

The middle ear bones (these vibrate from sound waves and transmit it to the inner ear)
- malleus
- incus
- stapes

23

What is the Cochlea?

A snail-shaped structure of the inner ear containing the organ of corti

24

What is the Organ of Corti?

A sensory organ for the auditory system (the eye basically)
- basilar membrane
- hair cells
- tectorial membrane

25

What does the stimulation of hair cells trigger?

Action potentials in the auditory nerve

26

What does the basilar membrane consist of?

A base and an apex

27

What do natural, low-frequency and high-frequency sounds do in the basilar membrane?

natural = excite cells across the membrane
low = excite cells near the apex
high = excite cells near the base

28

What is the general process of how sound waves get in?

They vibrate the eardrum, which causes reactions in the bones then affecting the oval window, fluid moves around causing hair cells to bend in different ways depending on the soundwave

29

What is the secondary auditory cortex?

The superior temporal gyrus

30

Auditory signals are conducted to what two areas of the association cortex?

Prefrontal cortex
Posterior parietal cortex