Flashcards in Week Nine - Sensation & Perception Deck (72)
What is Sensation?
The manner in which our sense organs receive information from the environment
What is Perception?
The manner by which people select, organise, and interpret sensations
- understanding a stimulus
What is Transduction?
The manner by which physical energy is converted into sensory neural impulses
What is the former sensory system organisation?
receptors > thalamus > primary sensory cortex > secondary sensory cortex > association cortex
COMPLETELY BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
What is the neocortex?
A thin sheet of cells covering the rest of the brain
How are cells organised in the neocortex?
Into 6 stereotypical layers.
The types of cells, their spatial arrangement and connections are pretty much the same in every part of the neocortex
What is the sensory organ and receptors for vision?
Rods and Cones
They transduce neural signals up the optic nerve
Explain the process in the primary visual pathway
retina - optic nerve - optic chiasm - thalamus - occipital lobe
Explain the process in the primary auditory pathway
auditory nerve - cochlear nuclei - superior olivary nuclei - inferior colliculus - medial geniculate - auditory cortex
What is the thalamus?
The gateway to the cortex (relay station)
What doesn't pass through the thalamus?
What is a Multisensory Integration area?
The area in which information is assimilated from various individual sensory systems and coordinated
How does hearing occur?
It occurs via sound waves, which result from rapid changes in air pressure caused by vibrating objects
What is pitch? (amplitude)
Frequency of vibration measures in hertz
What is Loudness? (frequency)
Function of sound wave intensity
What does timbre do? (complexity)
Provides information about the nature or complexity of the sound
Where are primary auditory receptors located? What are they?
In the cochlea (inner ear)
They are tiny hair cells that convert sound energy to neural impulses and send them along to the primary auditory cortex
What is the route of transduction of auditory information?
cochlea > superior olives > colliculi > thalamus > primary auditory cortex
What is the external ear called?
What is the name of the eardrum?
What is the middle ear?
A hollow region between the eardrum and the cochlea, containing the ossicles
What are ossicles?
The middle ear bones (these vibrate from sound waves and transmit it to the inner ear)
What is the Cochlea?
A snail-shaped structure of the inner ear containing the organ of corti
What is the Organ of Corti?
A sensory organ for the auditory system (the eye basically)
- basilar membrane
- hair cells
- tectorial membrane
What does the stimulation of hair cells trigger?
Action potentials in the auditory nerve
What does the basilar membrane consist of?
A base and an apex
What do natural, low-frequency and high-frequency sounds do in the basilar membrane?
natural = excite cells across the membrane
low = excite cells near the apex
high = excite cells near the base
What is the general process of how sound waves get in?
They vibrate the eardrum, which causes reactions in the bones then affecting the oval window, fluid moves around causing hair cells to bend in different ways depending on the soundwave
What is the secondary auditory cortex?
The superior temporal gyrus