Week Seven - Emotion Flashcards Preview

PSY224 - Behavioural & Cognitive Neuroscience (PART TWO) > Week Seven - Emotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week Seven - Emotion Deck (42)
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1

What are Emotions?

Valenced responses to external stimuli and/or internal representations that:
- involve changes in experiential, behavioural and physiological systems.
- are distinct moods
- can be learned or unlearned
- involves appraisals of stimuli

2

What are the 3 components of emotion?

1) A physiological reaction (automatic & unconscious) ie. butterflies in stomach

2) A behavioural response ie. fighting/fleeing

3) A feeling (conscious & subjective)

3

What are the basic emotions?

Anger
Fear
Sadness
Enjoyment
Disgust
Surprise

These are universal, innate and short-lasting

4

What are complex emotions?

Longer lasting with n universal facial expressions.

eg. Parental love, jealousy

Can be socially or culturally learned

5

What 3 dimensions can emotion be broken down to?

Valence (positive/negative)
Arousal (intensity)
Approach/withdraw (motivation)

6

Explain Charles Darwin's theory of the Evolution of Emotional Expression

Expressions of emotions evolved from behaviours indicating what an animal is likely to do next - enhances communication

7

What is the principle of antithesis?

There are opposing body movements/stances in regard to emotion

8

What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?

Proposes that a stimulus triggers autonomic/skeletal response which triggers response

ie. 1) perception of bear 2) physiological reactions 3) feeling of fear

9

What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

Proposes that a stimulus triggers autonomic/skeletal response (emotional expression) and emotion in parallel.

ie. 1) Perception of bear 2) physiological response & feeling of fear

10

What is the Appraisal Theory (Lazarus)?

Emotion is the result of the appraisal of risk/benefit

perception > cognitive appraisal > emotion > response

11

What is the Singer-Schacter Theory?

perception > general physiological reaction > cognition > emotion

12

Explain the Sham Rage finding in cats and the role of the Hypothalamus?

Decorticated cats exhibited extreme and unfocused aggressive responses.

Found hypothalamus was needed for the expression of aggression

13

What does bilateral damage to the Amygdala cause? What is this?

Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
- The lack of fear (putting objects in mouth, memory loss etc)

14

What brain areas are involved in Emotional Processing?

Amygdala
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Prefrontal Cortex
Insula (disgust)

15

Explain the process of the HPA Axis

Amygdala: Detects things in environment that are dangerous

Prefrontal Cortex: Regulates stress by making things seem less scary

Hypothalamus: Wakes up pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland: Releases hormones telling the adrenal gland to release cortisol

Cortisol: Travels through the blood and tells other body parts to react to stress

16

What 3 main points have advanced the understanding of brain mechanisms in emotion?

Brain activity associated with each human emotion is diffuse

There is usually motor and sensory activity

Brain activity for experiences, imagines or observed emotion is similar

17

What is the Urbach-Weithe disease (SM case study)

Deficits in identifying/reproducing fearful emotional expressions of others

18

What do lesions in the Amygdala do?

Blocks fear conditioning (but not UCR to aversive stimulus)

19

Explain the Low-Road and High-Road pathways

Low-Road: Fast subcortical pathway via the thalamus & Rapid detection of threat

High-Road: Slower cortical pathway. Complex analysis of stimuli

20

What is contextual fear conditioning?

Pairing an aversive stimulus with the context

21

What is the most critical area of the Amygdala in conditioned fear?

The lateral Nucleus

22

How is conditioned fear suppressed?

By the prefrontal cortex inhibiting the lateral amygdala

23

How does the Hippocampus mediate conditioned fear learning?

By informing the lateral amygdala about the context of the fear-related event

24

Outputs from what area regulate defensive behaviour and physiological responses

Outputs from the central nucleus regulate defensive behaviour and physiological responses?

25

What does the case of SP (amygdala damage) signify about the Amygdala?

SP did not show a response to blue square when repeatedly paired with electric shock but knew she would be shocked when presented with the square (same when told she will get a shock)

Suggesting that the Amygdala is important for the implicit aspect of learning associations

26

Explicit learning occurs through?

Interactions between the hippocampus and amygdala

27

Mild arousal enhances what?

Explicit memory for emotional events (blocked by amygdala damage)

28

How does the Amygdala play a role in enhancing attention to emotional stimuli?

Amygdala play a role in enhancing attention to emotional stimuli by enhancing early sensory processing via feedback projections to the sensory cortex

29

What is the role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex?

Damage to this area results in?

Understanding rewards and punishment to guide adaptive behaviour

Disinhibited, inappropriate behaviours, poor decision making

30

Explain Gross's Model of emotional regulation

Can be antecedent focused (reappraisal of the stimulus in non-emotional terms)

OR

Response focused (Suppression of an emotional expressive behaviour)