Flashcards in Week Seven - Emotion Deck (42)
What are Emotions?
Valenced responses to external stimuli and/or internal representations that:
- involve changes in experiential, behavioural and physiological systems.
- are distinct moods
- can be learned or unlearned
- involves appraisals of stimuli
What are the 3 components of emotion?
1) A physiological reaction (automatic & unconscious) ie. butterflies in stomach
2) A behavioural response ie. fighting/fleeing
3) A feeling (conscious & subjective)
What are the basic emotions?
These are universal, innate and short-lasting
What are complex emotions?
Longer lasting with n universal facial expressions.
eg. Parental love, jealousy
Can be socially or culturally learned
What 3 dimensions can emotion be broken down to?
Explain Charles Darwin's theory of the Evolution of Emotional Expression
Expressions of emotions evolved from behaviours indicating what an animal is likely to do next - enhances communication
What is the principle of antithesis?
There are opposing body movements/stances in regard to emotion
What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Proposes that a stimulus triggers autonomic/skeletal response which triggers response
ie. 1) perception of bear 2) physiological reactions 3) feeling of fear
What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
Proposes that a stimulus triggers autonomic/skeletal response (emotional expression) and emotion in parallel.
ie. 1) Perception of bear 2) physiological response & feeling of fear
What is the Appraisal Theory (Lazarus)?
Emotion is the result of the appraisal of risk/benefit
perception > cognitive appraisal > emotion > response
What is the Singer-Schacter Theory?
perception > general physiological reaction > cognition > emotion
Explain the Sham Rage finding in cats and the role of the Hypothalamus?
Decorticated cats exhibited extreme and unfocused aggressive responses.
Found hypothalamus was needed for the expression of aggression
What does bilateral damage to the Amygdala cause? What is this?
- The lack of fear (putting objects in mouth, memory loss etc)
What brain areas are involved in Emotional Processing?
Explain the process of the HPA Axis
Amygdala: Detects things in environment that are dangerous
Prefrontal Cortex: Regulates stress by making things seem less scary
Hypothalamus: Wakes up pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland: Releases hormones telling the adrenal gland to release cortisol
Cortisol: Travels through the blood and tells other body parts to react to stress
What 3 main points have advanced the understanding of brain mechanisms in emotion?
Brain activity associated with each human emotion is diffuse
There is usually motor and sensory activity
Brain activity for experiences, imagines or observed emotion is similar
What is the Urbach-Weithe disease (SM case study)
Deficits in identifying/reproducing fearful emotional expressions of others
What do lesions in the Amygdala do?
Blocks fear conditioning (but not UCR to aversive stimulus)
Explain the Low-Road and High-Road pathways
Low-Road: Fast subcortical pathway via the thalamus & Rapid detection of threat
High-Road: Slower cortical pathway. Complex analysis of stimuli
What is contextual fear conditioning?
Pairing an aversive stimulus with the context
What is the most critical area of the Amygdala in conditioned fear?
The lateral Nucleus
How is conditioned fear suppressed?
By the prefrontal cortex inhibiting the lateral amygdala
How does the Hippocampus mediate conditioned fear learning?
By informing the lateral amygdala about the context of the fear-related event
Outputs from what area regulate defensive behaviour and physiological responses
Outputs from the central nucleus regulate defensive behaviour and physiological responses?
What does the case of SP (amygdala damage) signify about the Amygdala?
SP did not show a response to blue square when repeatedly paired with electric shock but knew she would be shocked when presented with the square (same when told she will get a shock)
Suggesting that the Amygdala is important for the implicit aspect of learning associations
Explicit learning occurs through?
Interactions between the hippocampus and amygdala
Mild arousal enhances what?
Explicit memory for emotional events (blocked by amygdala damage)
How does the Amygdala play a role in enhancing attention to emotional stimuli?
Amygdala play a role in enhancing attention to emotional stimuli by enhancing early sensory processing via feedback projections to the sensory cortex
What is the role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex?
Damage to this area results in?
Understanding rewards and punishment to guide adaptive behaviour
Disinhibited, inappropriate behaviours, poor decision making