Week Six - Memory Flashcards Preview

PSY224 - Behavioural & Cognitive Neuroscience (PART TWO) > Week Six - Memory > Flashcards

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What are the 3 stages of learning?



What occurs in the encoding stage?

We process incoming information.
Acquisition: Registration and analysis of sensory input.
Consolidation: Creating a stronger representation over time.


What occurs in the storge stage?

Permanent representation of the information is stored and formed.


What occurs during the retrieval stage?

Stored information is retrieved back into conscious awareness.


What are the 4 types of memory?

Sensory - iconic (visual) & echoic (auditory)
Short-term and Working
Long-term Nondeclarative
Long-term Declarative


What are the Sensory memory characteristics?

Time course: milliseconds/seconds
Capacity: High
Conscious awareness: No
Mechanism of loss: Primarily decay


What are the short-term/working memory characteristics?

Time course: seconds/minutes
Capacity: limited (7 max) but can increase through chunking
Conscious awareness: Yes
Mechanism of loss: Primarily decay


What are the long-term nondeclarative memory (implicit) characteristics?

Time course: days/years
Capacity: high
Conscious awareness: no
Mechanism of loss: Primarily interference

Involves previous experience
EG riding a bike


What are the long-term declarative memory (explicit) characteristics?

Time course: days/years
Capacity: high
Conscious awareness: yes
Mechanism of loss: Primarily interference

Episodic (events) & Semantic (facts)
EG remembering who is president


What is included in the Medial Temporal Lobe?

Parahippocampal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices


What does damage to the Medial Temporal Lobe result in?

Severe amnesia


What connects the hippocampus to other subcortical structures?

The fornix


What are the other subcortical structures that are involved in memory?

Anterior thalamic nuclei
Mammillary bodies


What cortical structures are involved in memory?

The prefrontal cortex
Inferotemporal cortex


What does the PFC do in relation to memory? What does damage do?

Is involved in the storage and retrieval of memory. Also important for working memory processes
Damage can cause amnesia for episodic memories (
temporal order of events)


What does the Inferotemporal cortex do in relation to memory? What does damage do?

Though to play a role in the storage of visual representations. Also aids in the retrieval of visual memories.


What is the Cerebellum and Striatum role in memory?

Implicit memory
Cerebellum: Sensory motor skill learning and classical conditioning.
Striatum: Habit formation (learning where there is relationship between stimuli and responses)


Explain the Atkinson & Shiffrin Modal Model of Memory

We have sensory information which enters the information processing system and is first stored in a sensory register.

Items are then selected via attention and moved into STM and then if rehearsed, moved into LTM.

Can be lost via decay or interference.


Explain Baddeley & Hitch's model of working memory

Emphasises the processes involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information.

We bring information into our ST/working memory and manipulate that information by performing mental operations on it.

Information is encoded differently according to whether it is visual or verbal


Baddeley & Hitch's model 3 components of working memory?

Central Executive: Decision making, planning of responses and coordinating the two other systems.

Phonological Loop: Deals with auditory and verbal info stored in an acoustic/verbal code.

Visuospatial SketchPad: Stores visuospatial code, visual imagery etc


What is Anterograde Amnesia?

An inability to acquire new long term memories


What is Retrograde Amnesia?

A loss of memories that were acquired prior to the onset of amnesia


What kind of amnesia did HM have?

Severe anterograde amnesia
- episodic particularly
Retrograde amnesia 2 prior to surgery.

Had spared STM and non-declarative memory


What occurs for patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia on the Digit span +1 test?

After the limits of STM (7 +/- 2), this tasks becomes difficult


What is an aspect in amnesics regarding the acquisition of new semantic memories (especially HM)?

They may acquire some new semantic memories but typically do not know the source of knowledge (source amnesia).

Represented in HM floor plan of house drawing ability


Explain the case of KC

Severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

Some factual knowledge of life and intact general world knowledge

Showed intact conceptual priming (ability to learn semantic info)


What do cases like HM and KC tell us about episodic and semantic memory?

That they are supported by dissociable systems in the brain and semantic memory relies less on the hippocampus than episodic


How can implicit learning and non-declarative knowledge be tested?

Mirror tracing tasks
Serial reaction time tasks


What was HM results on the mirror tracing task?

Was able to perform and improve despite having no recollection of learning it previously


What does the Dual trace theory suggest?

That the hippocampus holds memory until it is stored elsewhere