Week Eight - Psychopharmacology Flashcards Preview

PSY224 - Behavioural & Cognitive Neuroscience (PART TWO) > Week Eight - Psychopharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week Eight - Psychopharmacology Deck (44)
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1

What is Psychopharmacology?

The study of drug induced changes in mood, thinking and behaviour and the effects of drugs on the NS

2

What is a drug?

A exogenous chemical not necessary for normal cellular functioning which alters the activity of certain cells of the body.

3

Psychoactive drugs are typically utilised to do what 2 things?

Alter mood: Stimulant, Depressant or Hallucinogen

Treat psychopathology: Anxiolytics, Antidepressants, Antipsychotics

4

What are Anxiolytics used for?

To reduce anxious feelings

5

What are Antidepressants used for?

Used to alleviate negative feelings typical of depressive symptomatology

6

What are Antipsychotics used for?

Used to treat severe forms of psychotic behaviour, such as hallucinations and delusions

7

What is Pharmacokinetics?

The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolised and excreted by the body.

8

What does Drug Effectiveness mean?

The ability of a drug to readily produce certain physiological and behavioural effects

9

What factors mediate the effects of drugs?

How it is administered
How often it is administered
How rapidly it enters the brain
The context in which it is administered
Our expectations of its effects

10

What do drugs need to do in order to be effective?

Reach their site of action within the CNS (typically do so through the bloodstream)

The route of administration effects this rate.

11

What is the blood brain barrier?

A barrier developed by the brain in order to protect itself against dangerous molecules that may damage brain tissue

12

How to drugs enter the brain?

Through the BBB (which is only for water-soluble molecules)

13

How do molecules that are soluble in lipids enter the brain?

They pass through the BBB and enter the cells that line the capillaries of the CNS

14

What is the best way to measure the effectiveness of a drug?

To plot a Dose-Response Curve (finally reaching a point after repeated administration which does not produce a more stronger effect)

15

Tolerance is the?

Decrease in effectiveness of a drug administered repeatedly

16

Sensitisation is the?

Increase in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly

17

What is Contingent Drug Tolerance?

Refers to a demonstration in which tolerance develops only to drug effects that are actually experienced contingent to a behaviour

18

What is Conditioned Drug Tolerance?

Refers to situations where tolerance effects are maximally expressed only when a drug is administered in the same situation in which it has previously been administered

19

What is a Placebo?

An innocuous substance that has no specific physiological effect in its own right (incorrect to say they have no effect)

20

What are the 2 types of drugs that affect synaptic transmission?

Antagonist: A drug that opposes/inhibits the effects of a particular NT on the postsynaptic cell

Agonist: A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular NT on the postsynaptic cell

21

What is the DIRECT route of an Antagonist and Agonist?

The binding cite at the receptor is the same for the drug and the NT (COMPETITIVE BINDING)

22

What is the INDIRECT route of an Antagonist and Agonist?

The binding cite at the receptor is different for the drug and the NT (NONCOMPETITIVE BINDING)

23

Acetylcholine (ACh) properties/role?

First NT ever discovered

Controlling heart rate
Motor movement
Role in Memory (Alzheimer's is a degeneration of ACh neurons)

24

What are the 5 biogenic amine NT?

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Dopamine
Histamine
Serotonin

25

Which of the 5 biogenic amine NT's are Catecholamines?

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Dopamine

THEY SHARE A BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY

26

Norepinephrine (NE)

Distributed throughout the CNS and PNS

Neurons originate in the pons (locus coeruleus)

They form an excitatory pathway to the cortex known at the RAS - which is responsible for maintaining cortical arousal)

Involved in controlling attention, emotion and eating, regulates organs (eg heart)

27

Norepinephrine (NE) deficiency results in?

Depression and ADD

28

What 2 pathways is dopamine located?

The nigrostriatal pathway: Involves voluntary movement.
Deficiencies - Parkinsons.

Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA): Involvement in reward and motivation.

29

D1 like receptor family consists of?

D1 & D5

30

D2 like receptor family consists of?

D2, D3 & D4