Flashcards in Week Eight - Psychopharmacology Deck (44)
What is Psychopharmacology?
The study of drug induced changes in mood, thinking and behaviour and the effects of drugs on the NS
What is a drug?
A exogenous chemical not necessary for normal cellular functioning which alters the activity of certain cells of the body.
Psychoactive drugs are typically utilised to do what 2 things?
Alter mood: Stimulant, Depressant or Hallucinogen
Treat psychopathology: Anxiolytics, Antidepressants, Antipsychotics
What are Anxiolytics used for?
To reduce anxious feelings
What are Antidepressants used for?
Used to alleviate negative feelings typical of depressive symptomatology
What are Antipsychotics used for?
Used to treat severe forms of psychotic behaviour, such as hallucinations and delusions
What is Pharmacokinetics?
The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolised and excreted by the body.
What does Drug Effectiveness mean?
The ability of a drug to readily produce certain physiological and behavioural effects
What factors mediate the effects of drugs?
How it is administered
How often it is administered
How rapidly it enters the brain
The context in which it is administered
Our expectations of its effects
What do drugs need to do in order to be effective?
Reach their site of action within the CNS (typically do so through the bloodstream)
The route of administration effects this rate.
What is the blood brain barrier?
A barrier developed by the brain in order to protect itself against dangerous molecules that may damage brain tissue
How to drugs enter the brain?
Through the BBB (which is only for water-soluble molecules)
How do molecules that are soluble in lipids enter the brain?
They pass through the BBB and enter the cells that line the capillaries of the CNS
What is the best way to measure the effectiveness of a drug?
To plot a Dose-Response Curve (finally reaching a point after repeated administration which does not produce a more stronger effect)
Tolerance is the?
Decrease in effectiveness of a drug administered repeatedly
Sensitisation is the?
Increase in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly
What is Contingent Drug Tolerance?
Refers to a demonstration in which tolerance develops only to drug effects that are actually experienced contingent to a behaviour
What is Conditioned Drug Tolerance?
Refers to situations where tolerance effects are maximally expressed only when a drug is administered in the same situation in which it has previously been administered
What is a Placebo?
An innocuous substance that has no specific physiological effect in its own right (incorrect to say they have no effect)
What are the 2 types of drugs that affect synaptic transmission?
Antagonist: A drug that opposes/inhibits the effects of a particular NT on the postsynaptic cell
Agonist: A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular NT on the postsynaptic cell
What is the DIRECT route of an Antagonist and Agonist?
The binding cite at the receptor is the same for the drug and the NT (COMPETITIVE BINDING)
What is the INDIRECT route of an Antagonist and Agonist?
The binding cite at the receptor is different for the drug and the NT (NONCOMPETITIVE BINDING)
Acetylcholine (ACh) properties/role?
First NT ever discovered
Controlling heart rate
Role in Memory (Alzheimer's is a degeneration of ACh neurons)
What are the 5 biogenic amine NT?
Which of the 5 biogenic amine NT's are Catecholamines?
THEY SHARE A BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY
Distributed throughout the CNS and PNS
Neurons originate in the pons (locus coeruleus)
They form an excitatory pathway to the cortex known at the RAS - which is responsible for maintaining cortical arousal)
Involved in controlling attention, emotion and eating, regulates organs (eg heart)
Norepinephrine (NE) deficiency results in?
Depression and ADD
What 2 pathways is dopamine located?
The nigrostriatal pathway: Involves voluntary movement.
Deficiencies - Parkinsons.
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA): Involvement in reward and motivation.
D1 like receptor family consists of?
D1 & D5