Flashcards in Week 1 ENT 3 of 4 Deck (41)
What would allergy related symptoms look like? (presenting physical symptoms)
Clear, watery discharge; itchy or watery eyes; congestion; and fatigue
Clear discharge is usually related to allergies.
What makes a person more likely to have allergies?
History of allergies and family history of allergies
Allergies often have familial component.
What are two common seasonal allergens?
mold and pollen
What are the two types of rhinitis and what causes it?
May be allergic or vasomotor/idiopathic
Allergic – Sneezing, rhinorrhea, and pharyngeal itching after exposure to allergen.
Vasomotor – Nonallergic, noninfectious perennial nasal congestion.
Subjective findings of Rhinitis?
Scant, watery discharge after exposure to allergen, odors, temperature changes, sunlight, environmental factors.
Objective findings of Rhinitis types?
Allergic rhinitis – pale mucosa with/without polyps
Idiopathic – erythema to mucosa
Management of Rhinitis types?
Allergic rhinitis – antihistamines, oral decongestants, avoidance
Idiopathic – avoidance of irritants
Health promotion for rhinitis?
smoking, spicy foods, and the use of perfumes/colognes should be monitored closely.
What is Sinusitis and what causes it?
A viral, bacterial or fungal inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses. S. pneumoniae is the most causative agent.
Sinusitis subjective findings?
Nasal congestion, facial or dental pain, postnasal drip, headache, fever, discolored nasal discharge.
Sinusitis Objective findings?
Fever, symptoms x 2 week, frontal/maxillary sinus tenderness, pharyngeal edema, inflammed nasal mucosa.
Management of Sinusitis?
Symptomatic treatment, antibiotics may be needed for bacterial infections (Amox, Bactrim, Biaxin, Zithromax, etc.)
Health promotion related to Sinusitis?
Sinusitis often manifests after repeated allergen exposure.
Test question on being able to tell the diff. between sinusitis and rhinitis. So what is the difference between the two?
Rhinitis- watery discharge, pale mucosa, sneesing, runny nose, itching, congestion due to allergen typically.
Sinusitis - pain, HA, DISCOLORED NASAL DISCHARGE, fever, 2 weeks or more of symptoms and caused by bacterial or fungal process.
what is anosmia?
loss of sense (of smell)
what is hyposmia?
loss of taste
With taste and smell disturbances Subjectively you should be able to distinguish between anosmia and hyposmia. How would you do this?
The slide literally just says: Subjective findings:
Distinguish between anosmia and hyposmia
(no answer for this in the ppt but I will guess below)- is this the chicken or the egg? :)
anosmia- loss of smell can be tested for by having someone smell something and see what they can smell.
hyposmia is loss of taste, so if they can smell it but then the taste is just super dull it would be more of a loss of taste than smell?
I mean if your smell is gone your taste is going to suffer but if your taste is "gone" then smell should be normal and just no taste.
Management of a taste and smell disturbance?
Will depend on causative diagnosis
Objective finding for taste and smell disturbance?
Complete medical, social and medication history is warranted.
Health promotion with taste and smell disturbance?
Aging, tobacco usage, medications, toxins, malignant neoplasms, nasal inflammation, infection, malnutrition, facial trauma, Parkinson’s, Alzheimers’, diabetes may contribute to anosmia and hyposmia.
The nose can be a primary site for malignant tumors such as ?
carcinomas, lymphomas, sarcomas, and melanomas
Tumors and Polyps of the Nose: Subjective findings?
May be asymptomatic, nasal obstruction, pain, nasal discharge, epistaxis, anasomia, headache
Tumors and Polyps of the Nose: Objective findings ?
Erythema, edema, discharge, bleeding, visualization of tumor or polyp.
Tumors and Polyps of the Nose: Management?
Referral for biopsy by otorhinolaryngologist
Tumors and Polyps of the Nose: Health Promotion?
Smoking and smokeless tobacco may contribute to cancers of the nasal cavity.
What are three allergy studies, and tell me a little about them?
Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
Blood assay of the IgE antibodies
Interdermal sensitivity studies
The introduction of specific suspected allergens under the skin and evaluation of the response
Accomplished by the submission of a mucous smear from the nasal passage
IgE involves what cells and what kind of reaction?
mast cells and basophils, anaphylactic reaction.
What must you use in order to view the oropharynx well?
Use of brightly lit otoscope is a necessity to view the oropharynx.
When would you avoid using a tongue depressor for viewing the oropharynx?
should be avoided in suspected cases of epiglottitis