Week 2 CV Study Guide (everything) Flashcards Preview

SUM '20 - Health Assessment > Week 2 CV Study Guide (everything) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2 CV Study Guide (everything) Deck (103)
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1

Where is the base of the heart located in the chest

The Base of the heart is the right and left 2nd intercostal spaces next to the sternum.

2

What produces the apical impulse

The tapered inferior tip of the heart(‘s Apex)

3

What is the PMI and where on the chest is it located

The apical impulse, identified during palpation of the precordium as the PMI

Located: 5th intercostal space, 7-9cm lateral to the midsternal line, typically at or just medial to the left midclavicular line.

4

Be able to discuss the flow of blood through the heart

Superior and inferior vena cavas → right atrium → tricuspid valve → right ventricle → pulmonary valve → pulmonary arteries → lungs → pulmonary veins → left atrium → mitral valve → left ventricle → aortic valve → aorta and the aortic arch → body

5

Describe Systolic blood flow

Systole: the ventricle contract (pressure generated by the left ventricle during systole when it ejects blood into the aorta and the arterial tree)

-The right ventricle pumps the blood into the pulmonary arteries (pulmonic valve is open)

-The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta (aortic valve is open)

6

Describe Diastolic blood flow

Diastole: the ventricles relax (pressure generated by blood remaining in the arterial tree during diastole when the ventricles are relaxed)

-Blood flows from the right atrium-> right ventricle (tricuspid valve is open)

-Blood flows from the left atrium-> left ventricle (mitral valve is open)

7

Describe the pressures generated by SBP:

SBP:
pressure generated by the LV during systole, when the LV ejects blood into the aorta and the arterial tree

- pressure waves in the arteries create pulses

8

Describe the pressures generated by DBP:

DBP:
pressure generated by blood remaining in the arterial tree during diastole, when the ventricles are relaxed

9

pressure waves in the arteries create

pulses

10

Diastole:

ventricles relax

11

Systole:

ventricles contract

12

Preload=

volume overload

13

Afterload =

pressure overload

14

Equation for CO =

CO = SV x HR

15

Equation for BP=

CO x SVR

16

Chest pain R/T cardiac disease:

most important symptom of cardiac disease

17

Chest pain R/T symptomatic blockage:

-CP symptoms typically occur w/70% blockages

but

-can occur w/50%

18

Chest pain in R/T groups of patients who have atypical s/s and what are their symptoms?

women, diabetics, and the elderly

jaw pain, fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and upper back pain

19

atypical s/s :

jaw pain
fatigue
weakness
SOB
upper back pain

20

Differential Dx of CP:

•Angina
•Myocardial Infarction
•Other Ischemic C-V Origins (Aortic stenosis/ regurgitation, uncontrolled htn, severe anemia/hypoxia, tachycardia/ arrhythmias, pulmonary HTN.)
•Non-ischemic C-V Origins (thoracic/aortic aneurysms, aortic dissection, pericarditis, mitral valve prolapse, murmur)
•Pulmonary- PE, pneumonia, pleurisy, tumor
•Gastrointestinal- GERD often occurs at night, cardiac early AM
•Psychogenic
•Neuromusculoskeletal- costochondritis- history of injury, sports, coughing, late-stage pregnancy, young without cardiac history

21

What is the true symptom of CAD:

angina Pectoris

22

What is angina caused by and due to?

-Caused by the hypoxia to the myocardium which leads to anaerobic metabolism and the production of lactic acid. The acid irritates the actual heart muscle and makes it hurt.

-Due to an imbalance of oxygen delivery to the heart and the oxygen need of the heart.

23

Levin’s Sign:

Pt’s describe angina by clenching their fist and placing it over the sternum.

24

Differential Dx of CP and Angina

-Usually substernal
- Radiation - chest, shoulder, neck, jaw, arms
-Deep visceral (pressure)- intense, not excruciating
-Duration- min no sec (5-15 min)
-Associated with nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, pallor
-Precipitated by exercise and emotion
-Becomes unstable when occurs during sleep, at rest, or increases in severity/ frequency
-Relief with rest or NTG

25

Differential Dx of CP and MI

-Same type OF PAIN as angina
-Duration greater than 15 mins
-Occurs spontaneously, often sequela of unstable angina
-Relieved with morphine, successful reperfusion of block coronary artery

26

Differential Dx of CP and other CV ISCHEMIC origins:

•Aortic Stenosis/Regurgitation
•Uncontrolled Hypertension- usually hypertension is asymptomatic
•Severe Anemia/Hypoxia
•Tachycardia/Arrhythmias
•Pulmonary Hypertension

27

Pericarditis:

inflammation of the pericardium

28

Pericarditis occurs:
(what medical problems?)

•Occurs as a complication of MI or CABG, or in patients with connective tissue disease

29

Pericarditis s/s:

sharp and stabbing,
radiates to trapezius ridge
aggravated by inspiration
coughing, recumbency, and rotation of trunk, and lessened by sitting upright and leaning forward

30

Pericarditis Tx:

•Relief - analgesics & anti-inflammatory meds