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Flashcards in Two Systems Deck (41)
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What is the kouros?

An Ancient Greek statue of a nude male youth standing with the left leg forward and the arms at the sides


What was the debate about the Getty kouros?

There was a greek statue of it, some people weren't sure if it was real or a forgery. The supporting documents were shown to be poor forgeries, people made quick reasoning about this. Scientific evidence is inconclusive


How many types of thinking are there?

Two types of thinking, some circumstances where quick thinking is better than slow thinking


Poster experiment

Choose 5 posters in 3 conditions:
deliberate consideration
make quick decision
look at posters, solve anagrams, make quick decisions

immediately after, the deliberation group were most satisfied with the posters, a month later, the third group were more satisfied


Decisions about if relationships will last or if doctors should be sued

People only thought that relationships would last if the talk was about relationships

Decisions about whether doctors should be sued for malpractice - based on conversations between doctors and patients, info about training was not useful

Evidence that good decisions are the best


When do fast decisions go wrong?

Thinking tall people will make good presidents (the halo effect, quick but inaccurate)

Judgements made about unfamiliar items - will be wrong

Judgements made out of contexts

Judgements made under stress


Why are judgements made out of context bad?

The pepsi challenge and coke, most people prefer pepsi so coke came up with a new recipe that was a disaster. Coke sells more than pepsi


Why are judgements made under stress bad?

Police gunmen not reading information from faces correctly, they make mistakes here as under stress


Versions of the two systems theory

Associative thought and reasoning

Distinction between heuristic and algorithmic methods

Intuition and reasoning

Two types of rationality


Stanvich and West

These were the first people to set out a lot of detail about both of these systems


What is system 1?

Fast, automatic, little or no effort, no voluntary control
highly active


What is system 2?

Slow allocation of effort, complex computations, feeling of agency, might be identified with the self, runs in low effort mode
when it has to be switched to high effort, attention becomes focused


Example of switching system 2 on

Invisible gorilla - high number of people don't see it when other things are going on


Wason selection task

Participants have to come up with a fast answer to the question, distinguishing between fast and slow - different brain regions are involved


Unconscious influences on system 1

There are a lot of influences that we are not aware of, that may influence our thinking in ways that system 2 might not approve of


Unconscious influences on system 1 - unscramble words to make sentences

If words are associated with the elderly, when they walk down the corridor, they walk slower


Unconscious influences on system 1 - waking slowly

Walking slowly primes words associated with old age


Unconscious influences on system 1 - holding pencil

Asked to hold a pencil in-between your lips (causes you to frown) or teeth (smile)
then asked to look at cartoons
rated cartoon less or more abusing - more when in teeth

weren't aware of this effect


Unconscious influences on system 1 - voting

More likely to vote for increased funding for schools if voting station is in school


Unconscious influences on system 1 - lying on the phone

Lying on the phone leads to a preference for mouthwash over soap

Lying over email leads to a preference for soap over mouthwash


Unconscious influences on system 1 - subtle money

Subtle money primes make people more individualistic and selfish


Unconscious influences on system 1 not caught by system 2

Picture of face (eyes watching you) vs flowers, significantly increased money put into honesty box for coffee in academic kitchen

most of these effects are not noticed - system 2 is unaware of this influence


Cognitive ease - when thinking seems easy, what happens?

Rely on system 1
lead to illusions of truth, accepts things as face value, doesn't need evidence


Trick maths questions - cognitive strain

Slightly difficult, trick maths questions were solved more successfully in difficult to rad font


Mere exposure effect

Take things as face value more when in a good mood


What does a good mood do?

Increase the likelihood of guessing in 2 seconds whether there is a solution to a remote associations problem - but doesn't work if good mood is due to external stimulus - music playing


What does system 1 do?

It is biased to believe- hence confirmation bias
seems causal patterns, even if they don't exist
uses prototypes, good with averages, poor with sums
halo effect
primacy effect


Primacy effects - Asch

Description of 2 people
same list of features, but in first case, the good features were listed first (primacy effect). in second case, bad features were first, Rate Alan nicer than ben


What can the behaviour of system 1 be described as?

What you see is all there is
explains: overconfidence, base rate neglect and framing


What does system 1 not care about?

Quantity and quality of information - doesn't care if there is research to support it
jumps to conclusions