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Flashcards in Managing multiple languages Deck (17)
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What is multilingualism?

Speaking more than one language


What are the challenges of bilingualism?

Don't know how many people speak more than one language - general consensus is more than half
focusing on monolinguals ignores how majority of world speak

what does it mean to speak a language? - know words, have a convo etc. different languages have different cultural norms

language is complex


Why is becoming a bilingual complicated?

Age acquired
type of learning - acquired, taught, studied
type of vocabulary
influence of other language
cultural and historical context


Are languages separate or connected?

Overwhelming and consistent evidence for joint activation


What is joint activation?

When both languages are active even when only one is being used


What is the difference between balanced bilinguals and unbalanced bilinguals?

Balanced - equal ability in both languages

Unbalanced - dominant in one, most are unbalanced


What is the influence of two languages?

Bidirectional influence between languages - language 1 influenced l2 and language 2 influenced language 1


What does joint activation mean?

Doing a lot more even if it isn't needed, has lots to manage


What are cognates?

Words that mean the same thing in two different languages
e.g.. piano - same word, same meaning


What are interlingual homographs?

Word that has the same form but doesn't mean the same thing e.g. pie, in Spanish means foot


Evidence of joint activation - lexical decision task

Tested dutch and English words
Deciding if it is a word or not
Bilinguals were faster at lexical decisions for cognates
Slower for interlingual homographs when the pronunciation was different - when they conflict

suggests they conflict with each other - lexical access is not language specific


Evidence for joint activation - interlingual homophones in dutch and English

Homophones - words that sound similar
Interference found for both languages - influence occurs for auditory

second language can influence the native language


Evidence for joint activation - simultaneous language use

Chinese-English bilinguals: are two words in English semantically related
no behavioural difference
but changes in ERP signal - indexes semantic priming
evidence of joint activation


Evidence for joint activation: sign language

ASL/English bilinguals asked to judge whether two words were semantically related

judgements were faster when words were related and the signs were similar (match), slower when the words were unrelated and the signs were similar (mismatch)

shows it occurs cross modally - not just auditory


How do bilinguals control one language?

Code switching - switching between languages, especially mid conversation or mid sentence


Code switching - name pictures

Unbalanced German-english bilinguals to name pictures in either German, dutch or switching
cognates faster than non
mixed language condition (switching between German and dutch) - cognate effect was stronger for German than for dutch

in the no switching condition, cognate effect was stronger for dutch then German

in switching contexts, l2 has more of an influence on l1


Code switching - verbal fluency task

Naming words starting with a particular letter
when bilinguals did this in l2 first, they were slower to do same task with same letter in l1
shows whole language vs lexical item inhibition