Memory Encoding and Consolidation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Memory Encoding and Consolidation Deck (29)
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1

What does encoding refer too?

Storage of information into long term basis

2

What does consolidation refer too?

Strengthening of information into long-term memory

3

What is the levels of processing theory?

Craig and Lockhard - retrieval is enhanced by deeper encoding (meaningful) compared to shallow encoding (physical characteristics)

4

Craig and Tulving - experiment

Proportion of words recognised increase with depth of incoming, manipulated:
shallow encoding - is the word capitalised
deeper encoding - does the word rhyme
deepest encoding - does the word fit in a sentence

Found - proportion increased with levels of processing

5

Evidence of levels of processing theory

Recall is enhanced by deeper processing through:
embedding words in complex sentences
creating visual mental imagery
self reference - does this word describe you?
generating information - generate words related to given words
organisation - organising words into categories
the testing effect - learning information by testing yourself

6

Evaluation of levels of processing theory

It is useful in explaining memory tools such as elaboration, distinctiveness of processing

But..
difficult to define depth of processing
descriptive not explanatory - is it the brain?
doesn't take into account relevance of the processing method to the memory test

7

Ways of enhancing memory (5)

Encoding specificity principle
State dependent encoding
Transfer appropriate processing
Spacing effect
Sleep

8

Encoding specificity principle

Encoding is enhanced when the retrieval context matches the encoding context

9

Evidence for the encoding specificity principle

Godden and Baddeley
asked pots to recall words, encoded/tested on land or underwater. When conditions match, they remember more

Grant et al - encoded in short or noisy, took a short answer test in short conditions or noisy conditions. Encoding was better when match

10

State dependent encoding

Retrieval is enhanced when peoples internal state during encoding and retrieval matches

11

Evidence for state dependent encoding

Eich and Metcalfe
Played happy or sad music and asked to think about happy or sad thoughts
Recall more when matched

12

Transfer appropriate processing

Retrieval is enhanced if the memory test is consistent with the method of encoding

13

Evidence for transfer appropriate processing

Morris et al
Coded either semantically or rhyming
Then given standard recognition test or rhyming
Match of test increases the proportion of words recognised

14

Spacing effect

If learn materials over different intervals, retrieval is enhanced

15

Sleep effect

Sleeping shortly after encoding enhances retrieval

16

What are the two types of amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia
Anterograde amnesia

17

What is retrograde amnesia?

Problems remembering events prior to the onset of amnesia, past events

18

What is anterograde amnesia?

EncImpairment in ability to remember new information learned after the onset of amnesia

19

What are the theories of amnesia?

Encoding deficit
Retrieval deficit
Theory of consolidation
Multiple trace theory

20

Theories of encoding - encoding deficit

Amnesia is caused by not being able to encode info
explains retrograde amnesia as an ongoing deficit, when people can't remember things in the past, it is because their amnesia started a long time ago
not supported by retrograde amnesia in patients with sudden onset

21

Theories of encoding - retrieval deficit

Amnesia is caused by a retrieval deficit
Both types are caused by inability to retrieve memories
Not supported by differing levels of amnesia across patients and some isolated cases of each

22

Theory of consolidation

Squire: 2 stages
1. an initial memory trace is created within a few seconds
2. over several years, the memory trace is strengthened by further consolidation involving the hippocampus

23

What does the theory of consolidation explain?

Retrogade amnesia of 2-3 years with mainly anterograde amnesia - due to impairment to consolidation by hippocampus - can't consolidate memories

But Retrograde amnesia spanning many years is due to a retrieval deficit

24

Multiple trace theory

Nadel and Moscovitch - over time, episodic memories are converted to semantic memories via the hippocampus
Episodic memory retrieval is dependent on the hippocampus, semantic memory retrieval is independent of the hippocampus

Impairment to hippocampus will prevent conversion of episodic to semantic

25

Which theory is correct?

The evidence is inconclusive

26

What is a temporal gradient in amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia often presents with better memory for older memories than more recent memories

27

What explains the temporal gradient?

Standard model of consolidation: older memories are strengthened by secondary consolidation over years, but new memories can't undergo consolidation if hippocampus sustains damage

Multiple trace model - older memories are converted to semantic memories so are not dependent on the hippocampus, newer memories are episodic and dependent on hippocampus for retrieval

28

Preserved memory function

Lots of things preserved in amnesia (procedural, repetition priming, know, semantic) but a few exceptions

29

How do we explain the pattern of preserved memory function?

Pattern of preserved memory systems relates to implicit memory - implicit memory is still reserved

Pattern of preserved and impaired memory is due to separate memory processing systems - fractionation