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Flashcards in Memory Encoding and Consolidation Deck (29)
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What does encoding refer too?

Storage of information into long term basis


What does consolidation refer too?

Strengthening of information into long-term memory


What is the levels of processing theory?

Craig and Lockhard - retrieval is enhanced by deeper encoding (meaningful) compared to shallow encoding (physical characteristics)


Craig and Tulving - experiment

Proportion of words recognised increase with depth of incoming, manipulated:
shallow encoding - is the word capitalised
deeper encoding - does the word rhyme
deepest encoding - does the word fit in a sentence

Found - proportion increased with levels of processing


Evidence of levels of processing theory

Recall is enhanced by deeper processing through:
embedding words in complex sentences
creating visual mental imagery
self reference - does this word describe you?
generating information - generate words related to given words
organisation - organising words into categories
the testing effect - learning information by testing yourself


Evaluation of levels of processing theory

It is useful in explaining memory tools such as elaboration, distinctiveness of processing

difficult to define depth of processing
descriptive not explanatory - is it the brain?
doesn't take into account relevance of the processing method to the memory test


Ways of enhancing memory (5)

Encoding specificity principle
State dependent encoding
Transfer appropriate processing
Spacing effect


Encoding specificity principle

Encoding is enhanced when the retrieval context matches the encoding context


Evidence for the encoding specificity principle

Godden and Baddeley
asked pots to recall words, encoded/tested on land or underwater. When conditions match, they remember more

Grant et al - encoded in short or noisy, took a short answer test in short conditions or noisy conditions. Encoding was better when match


State dependent encoding

Retrieval is enhanced when peoples internal state during encoding and retrieval matches


Evidence for state dependent encoding

Eich and Metcalfe
Played happy or sad music and asked to think about happy or sad thoughts
Recall more when matched


Transfer appropriate processing

Retrieval is enhanced if the memory test is consistent with the method of encoding


Evidence for transfer appropriate processing

Morris et al
Coded either semantically or rhyming
Then given standard recognition test or rhyming
Match of test increases the proportion of words recognised


Spacing effect

If learn materials over different intervals, retrieval is enhanced


Sleep effect

Sleeping shortly after encoding enhances retrieval


What are the two types of amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia
Anterograde amnesia


What is retrograde amnesia?

Problems remembering events prior to the onset of amnesia, past events


What is anterograde amnesia?

EncImpairment in ability to remember new information learned after the onset of amnesia


What are the theories of amnesia?

Encoding deficit
Retrieval deficit
Theory of consolidation
Multiple trace theory


Theories of encoding - encoding deficit

Amnesia is caused by not being able to encode info
explains retrograde amnesia as an ongoing deficit, when people can't remember things in the past, it is because their amnesia started a long time ago
not supported by retrograde amnesia in patients with sudden onset


Theories of encoding - retrieval deficit

Amnesia is caused by a retrieval deficit
Both types are caused by inability to retrieve memories
Not supported by differing levels of amnesia across patients and some isolated cases of each


Theory of consolidation

Squire: 2 stages
1. an initial memory trace is created within a few seconds
2. over several years, the memory trace is strengthened by further consolidation involving the hippocampus


What does the theory of consolidation explain?

Retrogade amnesia of 2-3 years with mainly anterograde amnesia - due to impairment to consolidation by hippocampus - can't consolidate memories

But Retrograde amnesia spanning many years is due to a retrieval deficit


Multiple trace theory

Nadel and Moscovitch - over time, episodic memories are converted to semantic memories via the hippocampus
Episodic memory retrieval is dependent on the hippocampus, semantic memory retrieval is independent of the hippocampus

Impairment to hippocampus will prevent conversion of episodic to semantic


Which theory is correct?

The evidence is inconclusive


What is a temporal gradient in amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia often presents with better memory for older memories than more recent memories


What explains the temporal gradient?

Standard model of consolidation: older memories are strengthened by secondary consolidation over years, but new memories can't undergo consolidation if hippocampus sustains damage

Multiple trace model - older memories are converted to semantic memories so are not dependent on the hippocampus, newer memories are episodic and dependent on hippocampus for retrieval


Preserved memory function

Lots of things preserved in amnesia (procedural, repetition priming, know, semantic) but a few exceptions


How do we explain the pattern of preserved memory function?

Pattern of preserved memory systems relates to implicit memory - implicit memory is still reserved

Pattern of preserved and impaired memory is due to separate memory processing systems - fractionation