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Flashcards in Attention and Cognitive Control Deck (17)
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What is cognitive control?

Controlling aspects associated with cognition:
memory, inhibition, conflict resolution, proactive/reactive control


Inhibition definition

Blocking processes


Conflict resolution definition

Prioritising a process


Proactive control

Setting a strategy in advance


Reactive control

Responding to events as they happen


Cognitive load

Cognitive load increases distractors
Cognitive control is required to inhibit distractors that make it to late selection


Lavie et al - response competition flanker task

Ppts asked to remember digits during each trial
low cog load - 1 digit
high cog load - 6 digits
Results: distractor interference increased under high cognitive load
Manipulating perceptual load as well - high load - less interference

Same effects found on singleton attentional capture task - cognitive load increases distraction from colour singleton


Carmel et al 2012 - does it reduce inattention blindness?

Task: classify names, ignore faces
surprise memory test

Low load: chance level accuracy 50% - good at ignoring faces
High load: high accuracy, 80%, can't focus on just one thing


Individual differences - operation span task

Perform simple maths and read out words at the same time
Test recall of words, ospan related to fluid intelligence
Individuals with low WM showed increased:
stroop interference
response competition interferance
own name breakthrough in dichotic listening - high WM = 20%, low WM = 65% - hearing name is a failure of attention


Neural mechanisms of attention

FMRI spatial cueing - when giving cues, greater visual Cortex response, frontal/parietal activation

Attentional capture - when there is a singleton, frontal and parietal activated. frontal activated negatively predicted behaviour interferance

Response competition task - incongruent distractors = more frontal activation (DLPFC + ACC) - high in anxiety had less activation here and higher behavioural intererance

Sustained attention - DLPFC and ACC activated during sustained attention


Is distraction internal or external?

Mind wandering is internal


What does mind wandering lead to?

More distraction and more failures in sustained attention


What are frontal regions involved in?

Both mind wandering (generating task unrelated thoughts) and cognitive control (attention)


Why does it matter that the same regions are involved in mind wandering and cognitive control?

It is a challenge for studying attentional control of mind wandering is the same regions are involved


Is increased memory associated with more or less mind wandering?

Mixed evidence, due to the task given
Kane et al - high WM = reduced mind wandering
Levinson et al = high WM = increased mind wandering


Are you less or more distracted with high cognitive control?

Less distracted
Cognitive control deficits implicated in clinical symptoms of attention - e.g. anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


What does damage to frontal/parital regions mean?

Problems in attention and cognitive control