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Flashcards in Theory Deck (141)
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Structural Family Therapy includes what treatment strategies?

The overlapping steps of : Joining (ie..tracking and memesis); Evaluating/Diagnosing (family map, enactment); and Restructuring (enactment).


For practitioners of ACT, "Dirty Discomfort" is the result of _____.

Clean pain- Clean pain is what you experience when something intrinsically hurtful or stressful happens to you.
Dirty pain- stems not from an objective situation or event but from your subjective thoughts about a situation or event (whether real or imagined).


Gambler's Fallacy

The gambler's fallacy, also known as the Monte Carlo fallacy or the fallacy of the maturity of chances, is the mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently than normal during a given period, it will happen less frequently in the future.


Based on the results of their research, Howard and his colleagues (1986) concluded that about ___% of psychotherapy clients show measurable improvements in symptoms by the 26th therapy session with an additional ___% showing measurable improvements by the 52nd session.

75% by 26th session, 10% more by 52nd session


Based on a review of psychotherapy outcome studies, Hans Eysenck (1952) concluded that:

B. 66% of patients with neuroses can be expected to experience spontaneous recovery without treatment.


Lazarus and Cognitive Appraisal Theory

Lazarus also distinguished between primary appraisal, which seeks to establish the significance or MEANING of an event, and secondary appraisal, which ASSESSES ABILITY TO COPE with the consequences of the event.


Ridley’s (1984) concept of “healthy cultural paranoia” is useful for understanding:

Why Black clients do not disclose to White psychotherapists. Ridley stated that because the encounter in counseling and psychotherapy is a microcosm of the larger American society, Black clients may not disclose personal information to White therapists for fear that they may be vulnerable to racial discrimination.



Brings a confusing or unclear issue into focus



IE: A husband and wife focus on helping their son to avoid conflict


Rehm's Self Control Theory

Depression is due to lack of self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, and self-evaluation


George Kelly

Described "Personal Constructs", which are bipolar dimensions of meaning that determines how a person perceives, interprets, and predicts events.


"Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills"

Described by Sue, et al., that describes 3 areas of multicultural counseling.


Sophie's Lesbian Identity Model

After reviewing existing identity models, Sophie created a general stage theory of lesbian identity development:
- awareness, testing and exploration, identity acceptance, identity integration


Burne's Law of Attraction

People prefer spending time with other people of similar attitudes, and which this preference has been linked to reinforcement.


Sue & Sue (1999) say that "Uncle Tom Syndrome" and "Playing it Cool" are what?

Survival mechanisms


To reduce a child's (5 yr old example) fear of the dark, what would be the most effective strategy/treatment?

Coping self-statements and positive imagery


"Flexibility" and "Complexity" strategies represent which steps of the Helms' White Racial Identity Model?



A dimensional approach to diagnosis is based on doing what what with attributes?

Quantification of attributes


What ethnic group had the best outcomes of group therapy in a Los Angeles study?



The Cattell-Horn-Carrol Theory of Cognitive Abilities combines the Theory of Fluid Intelligence with the 3-Stratum Theory of Intelligence in what way?

It distinguishes between 10 broad abilities and 70 narrow abilities


Porter and Lawler's Expectancy Theory

"Instrumentality" refers to the belief that meeting job performance goals will lead to certain outcomes


What is Equity Theory related to?

Social Comparison Theory


When someone has moved to the US and identifies with family culture at home and American culture outside the home, what is this described as?

Bicultural (ie: "I identify with both but primarily Latino"


What is the name of the research by Kohlbert, whereby deciding between 2 moral dilemmas, participants must choose between obeying the law and the value of human life?

The Heinz Dilemma


According to Holland, how would a high degree of differentiation the predictability of the person-environment interaction?

It would increase the predictability of the person-environment interaction.


According to Gerald Patterson, aggressive children's parents rely on power assertion to enforce their standards, and this describes their discipline approach:

Inconsistent and not consistently linked to the child's behavior.


Family therapy is probably contraindicated if one of the family members has:

Severe depression (vs longstanding marital problems, ED, or attributing problems to one family member)


Erickson's last stage of psychosocial development resolution comes with what?

It is Ego Integrity VS Despair, and involves WISDOM


Differences between Freud and Jung

- Jung more optimistic view of human nature
- Jung promoted more interaction between therapist and client (less authoritarian and more egalitarian)
- Jung thought development continued throughout the lifespan


Herzberg's 2 Factor Theory

Classifies job security, pay and benefits, relationships with coworkers, working conditions, and company policies as Hygiene Factors