Flashcards in Learning Theory, Beh/CBT Interventions, Memory & Forgetting Deck (117)
Pavlov referred to the stimulus that naturally elicited salivation (or other response) as the ___________, and the response it elicited as the ___________.
1) unconditioned stimulus
2) unconditioned response
Pavlov referred to the neutral stimulus as _______, and the response it produced after conditioning trials the ________.
1) conditioned stimulus
2) conditioned response
What type of conditioning is the most effective, and what does it look like?
Delay Conditioning; presenting the CS so that it precedes and overlaps presentations of the US.
- in contrast to Delay conditioning
- presents the US before the CS
- rarely effective for establishing a conditioned response
Result of repeated presentation of the CS without the US
Produces extinction of CR
When a weak CR is often elicited by the CS after extinction trials; proving "once something's learned it's never forgotten."
When a subject (often Pavlov's dog) responded with a CR to stimuli that were similar to the original CS.
What does difficult discrimination between stimuli result in?
It produces experimental neurosis: restlessness, agitation, unprovoked aggressiveness- sxs similar to human acute neurosis.
Higher-order conditioning (2nd Order Conditioning)
-When an established CS is consistently presented following a new neutral stimulus, so that the new neutral stimulus also produces a CR.
- CS therefore being treated/used as US
Occurs when an association has been made between a CS and US, and the CS and the 2nd neutral stimulus does not produce a CR.
Watson: Albert and the Rat
Watson used classical conditioning in an 11-month old named Albert. He paired presentation of a white rat with a loud noise, so that eventually only the white rat alone elicited a startle response,
Name the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimuli in Watson's Albert and the Rat experiment
The CS was the rat
The US was the loud noise
When a subject (dog, person) produces a CR to a stimulus that resembles the original CS. Such as w/ Albert and the white rat-->white bunny, cotton, Santa mask.
Describe counter-conditioning interventions
Counter-conditioning interventions pair a maladaptive behavior with an incompatible response in order to eliminate the maladaptive behavior. In the case of Fetishism, the object of the fetish is the conditioned stimulus,
Reciprocal inhibition (WOLPE)
- Wolpe thought this technique could be used to weaken and eliminate anxiety reactions
- ie: pairs anxiety with relaxation (or other more adaptable/incompatible response
- 4 Stages
- Relaxation Training
- Construction of an Anxiety Hierarchy
- Desensitization in Imagination
- In Vivo Desensitization
Benefits of Systematic Desensitization - what did research show was the primary catalyst?
- Researchers used a "Dismantling Strategy" and showed that repeated exposure was actually the primary factor responsible for the benefits rather than reciprocal inhibition or gradual exposure. (They may facilitate however)
Behavioral Sex Therapy
- Most effective for treating premature ejaculation and Geneto-pelvic pain/Penetration Disorder
- Is a type of counter-conditioning
- Pairs situations that provoke performance anxiety with relaxation and pleasurable physical sensations
In Vivo Aversion Training
- Pairs a desired response/target behavior/stimulus associated with that behavior WITH a stimulus that naturally evokes an unpleasant response
ie: Pairing alcohol use with an electric shock.
An example of In Vivo Aversion Training
Pairing alcohol use with an electric shock so that eventually, the alcohol elicits a fear response and is avoided. In this case the alcohol is the CONDITIONED
STIMULUS, while the shock is the UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS.
When aversion therapy is conducted in imagination.
What is Two Factor Theory?
- Phobias are the result of a combination of classical conditioning and negative reinforcement (operant conditioning)
- From this perspective, a phobia can be eliminated by exposing the individual to the CONDITIONED STIMULUS while prohibiting their usual AVOIDANCE RESPONSE.
In-Vivo Exposure with response prevention
- Used to treat anxiety responses
- More effective when exposure sessions are "massed" (prolonged and continuous) vs. brief.
A variation of In Vivo Exposure that exposes the individual to the most anxiety arousing stimuli for a prolonged period.
Begins with exposure to situations that produce minimal anxiety and progresses to situations that increase anxiety levels.
Conducted in imagination and combines exposure with psychodynamic interpretations.
- Lateral eye movements were originally thought to be an essential component of EMDR; however a meta analysis by Davidson and Parker (2001) suggest that the beneficial effects are due to exposure (extinction)
Law of Effect
Predicts that a response that is followed by a satisfying state of affairs is likely to be repeated.
Two types of consequences that Skinner distinguished between