Flashcards in Sustainability Deck (48)
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
What percentage of the total UK carbon emissions are attributed to the built environment?
What percentage of the UK's landfill waste comes from the built environment?
What percentage of products delivered to construction sites are sent directly to landfill?
List some sustainable construction methods
- Prefabricated construction
- Selecting sustainable building materials, e.g. renewable materials, components with low LCC
- Consider site logistics, i.e. use local suppliers to save on fuel costs
- Project energy plan
- Waste management plan
- Water plan
- Implement sustainability requirements in PQQ/ERs
What design considerations would you expect an architect to make when designing a sustainable building?
- Maximising daylight
- Use ventilation (e.g. louvres) to cool building naturally without using energy
- Design for simplicity of operation and long life (reduce LCC/WLC)
- Reuse materials
What is a Waste Management Plan?
- Defines how materials will be managed efficiently and disposed of legally
- Defines how the re-use and recycling of materials will be maximised
List some recyclable materials
- Plasterboard and other gypsum products can be used and recycled for cement/plaster of paris
List some reusable materials
- Demolition waste for aggregate
- Building foundations can sometimes we reused, instead of being dug out and re -formed
What is the definition of a sustainable material?
A sustainable material does not deplete non-renewable (natural) resources. They have no adverse impacts on the environment when used.
List some sustainable materials
- FSC wood (Forest Stewardship Council)
- Anything that is being reused/recycled
List some sustainable FF&E
- Aerators on taps
- LED lights
- Solar panels
How might you design a building to reduce water consumption?
- Smaller sinks
- Reduce toilet cisterns from 6L to 3L
- Vacuum toilets
- Rainwater harvesting; grey water for toilets
How might a building generate sustainable energy?
- PVC panels
- Wind turbines
*Active buildings generate energy*
How might a building conserve energy?
- Maximise sunlight and ventilation through window design and building position (take advantage of prevailing winds)
- Thick walls
- Double/triple glazing
* Passive buildings conserve energy*
What is the difference between a directive, act and regulations/rules/codes?
Directive - a legal act of the EU which requires a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result
Act - legislation passed by parliament. Acts set out broad legal/policy principles.
Regulation - Guidelines that dictate how the provisions of the act are applied. Enforceable by law.
Name some of the acts and regulations in the UK that relate to sustainability.
- Clean Air Act 1993
- Climate Change Act 2008
- Energy Act 2011
- Building Regulations (Part L)
What is the Clean Air Act 1993?
- Restricts smoke/pollution
- Result of the "Great Smog" of '52
- First introduced in '56
- Provisions relate to furnace installations, chimney heights, maximum grit/dust emission rate
- Maximum fines of up to £1,000 for non-compliance
What is the Climate Change Act 2008?
- Commitment to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 34% by 2020 and 80% by 2050 (1990 base date)
- Committee of Climate Change established to advise government and report annually to parliament
- Carbon Plan established: government required to publish 5-yearly caps on greenhouse gas emissions
- Policies relating to corporate reporting of emissions
- Followed Kyoto Protocol 2005
What is the Energy Act 2011?
- Big 6 energy providers must deliver efficiency measures to domestic users
- Introduced Green Deal
What was the green deal?
- Offered loans for energy saving measures eg. insulation
- Loans paid back to government on top of energy bills, but with insulation energy bills should be overall lower
- Widely criticised and ultimately failed due to high interest rates on the loan and little awareness of the scheme
What is Part L of the Building Regulations?
- Conservation of fuel and power
- L1A = Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings
- L1B = Conservation of fuel and power in existing dwellings
- "Where a building is erected, it shall not exceed target CO2 level"
- L1A = 6% increase in performance of standards for new dwellings. TFEE rates introduced (Target Fabric Efficiency Rates)
- L1B = 9% increase in performance of standards for existing dwellings
- L2A and L2B introduced for new and existing buildings other than dwellings
What are the MEES?
- Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards
- To improve energy efficiency in buildings. Introduced in 2015.
- Buildings all given EPC ratings (energy performance certificate) A - G
April 2018 Changes:
- F and G rated properties unlettable
- Fine of 10% of properties value if let for < 3 months, 20% if let for > 3 months
- If it will take more than 7 years for energy efficiencies to cover cost of improvements
- If it will devalue property by more than 5%
- If client cannot get permission (planning, listed buildings etc)
Name some international regulations relating to sustainability
- Kyoto Protocol 2005
- Paris Climate Accord 2015
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
- Signed in 1997, effective as of 2005
- International treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Extension of the UNFCCC 92.
- Actions reflect the countries wealth, capacity to reduce emissions and emissions output.
- Countries must prepare policies and regulations to reduce GFG, increase absorption of GSG, and review and report on emissions
- First period ended in 2012, not enough countries ratified the protocol.
What is the Paris Climate Accord?
- Followed Kyoto Protocol
- Mitigation, adaption and financing for greenhouse gases
- Aim to keep temperature from rising 2 degrees by 2100
- Countries free to set their own targets
What is BREEAM?
- Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method
- Best practice guidance and standards for the environmental performance of buildings through design, specification, construction and operation.
- Based on energy, water, health and well-being, pollution, waste.
- Rated unclassified < 30%, pass > 30%, good > 45%, very good > 55%, excellent > 70%, outstanding > 85%
What is LEED?
- Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
- Widely used in the US, whereas BREEAM is more popular in the UK
- Based on Water efficiency, materials and resources, innovative design etc
- Rated certified, silver, gold, platinum
What is the SKA Rating?
- RICS environmental assessment method
- Created for non-domestic fit-out projects, rates sustainability of the fit-out separate from the base build
- Free online tool to help improve sustainability