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Flashcards in Sustainability Deck (48)
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1

Define sustainability.

Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

2

What percentage of the total UK carbon emissions are attributed to the built environment?

45%

3

What percentage of the UK's landfill waste comes from the built environment?

32%

4

What percentage of products delivered to construction sites are sent directly to landfill?

13%

5

List some sustainable construction methods

- Prefabricated construction

- Selecting sustainable building materials, e.g. renewable materials, components with low LCC

- Consider site logistics, i.e. use local suppliers to save on fuel costs

- Project energy plan

- Waste management plan

- Water plan

- Implement sustainability requirements in PQQ/ERs

6

What design considerations would you expect an architect to make when designing a sustainable building?

- Maximising daylight

- Use ventilation (e.g. louvres) to cool building naturally without using energy

- Design for simplicity of operation and long life (reduce LCC/WLC)

- Reuse materials

7

What is a Waste Management Plan?

- Defines how materials will be managed efficiently and disposed of legally

- Defines how the re-use and recycling of materials will be maximised

8

List some recyclable materials

- Glass

- Wood

- Plasterboard and other gypsum products can be used and recycled for cement/plaster of paris

9

List some reusable materials

- Bricks

- Demolition waste for aggregate

- Building foundations can sometimes we reused, instead of being dug out and re -formed

10

What is the definition of a sustainable material?

A sustainable material does not deplete non-renewable (natural) resources. They have no adverse impacts on the environment when used.

11

List some sustainable materials

- FSC wood (Forest Stewardship Council)

- Anything that is being reused/recycled

12

List some sustainable FF&E

- Aerators on taps

- LED lights

- Solar panels

13

How might you design a building to reduce water consumption?

- Smaller sinks

- Reduce toilet cisterns from 6L to 3L

- Vacuum toilets

- Rainwater harvesting; grey water for toilets

14

How might a building generate sustainable energy?

- PVC panels

- Wind turbines

*Active buildings generate energy*

15

How might a building conserve energy?

- Maximise sunlight and ventilation through window design and building position (take advantage of prevailing winds)

- Thick walls

- Insulation

- Double/triple glazing

* Passive buildings conserve energy*

16

What is the difference between a directive, act and regulations/rules/codes?

Directive - a legal act of the EU which requires a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result

Act - legislation passed by parliament. Acts set out broad legal/policy principles.

Regulation - Guidelines that dictate how the provisions of the act are applied. Enforceable by law.

17

Name some of the acts and regulations in the UK that relate to sustainability.

Acts

- Clean Air Act 1993

- Climate Change Act 2008

- Energy Act 2011

Regulations/rules/codes

- Building Regulations (Part L)

- MEES

18

What is the Clean Air Act 1993?

- Restricts smoke/pollution

- Result of the "Great Smog" of '52

- First introduced in '56

- Provisions relate to furnace installations, chimney heights, maximum grit/dust emission rate

- Maximum fines of up to £1,000 for non-compliance

19

What is the Climate Change Act 2008?

- Commitment to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 34% by 2020 and 80% by 2050 (1990 base date)

- Committee of Climate Change established to advise government and report annually to parliament

- Carbon Plan established: government required to publish 5-yearly caps on greenhouse gas emissions

- Policies relating to corporate reporting of emissions

- Followed Kyoto Protocol 2005

20

What is the Energy Act 2011?

- Big 6 energy providers must deliver efficiency measures to domestic users

- Introduced Green Deal

21

What was the green deal?

- Offered loans for energy saving measures eg. insulation

- Loans paid back to government on top of energy bills, but with insulation energy bills should be overall lower

- Widely criticised and ultimately failed due to high interest rates on the loan and little awareness of the scheme

22

What is Part L of the Building Regulations?

- Conservation of fuel and power

- L1A = Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings

- L1B = Conservation of fuel and power in existing dwellings

- "Where a building is erected, it shall not exceed target CO2 level"

2013 Changes:

- L1A = 6% increase in performance of standards for new dwellings. TFEE rates introduced (Target Fabric Efficiency Rates)

- L1B = 9% increase in performance of standards for existing dwellings

- L2A and L2B introduced for new and existing buildings other than dwellings

23

What are the MEES?

- Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards

- To improve energy efficiency in buildings. Introduced in 2015.

- Buildings all given EPC ratings (energy performance certificate) A - G

April 2018 Changes:

- F and G rated properties unlettable

- Fine of 10% of properties value if let for < 3 months, 20% if let for > 3 months

Exemptions:

- If it will take more than 7 years for energy efficiencies to cover cost of improvements

- If it will devalue property by more than 5%

- If client cannot get permission (planning, listed buildings etc)

24

Name some international regulations relating to sustainability

- Kyoto Protocol 2005

- Paris Climate Accord 2015

25

What is the Kyoto Protocol?

- Signed in 1997, effective as of 2005

- International treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Extension of the UNFCCC 92.

- Actions reflect the countries wealth, capacity to reduce emissions and emissions output.

- Countries must prepare policies and regulations to reduce GFG, increase absorption of GSG, and review and report on emissions

- First period ended in 2012, not enough countries ratified the protocol.

26

What is the Paris Climate Accord?

- Followed Kyoto Protocol

- Mitigation, adaption and financing for greenhouse gases

- Aim to keep temperature from rising 2 degrees by 2100

- Countries free to set their own targets

27

What is BREEAM?

- Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method

- Best practice guidance and standards for the environmental performance of buildings through design, specification, construction and operation.

- Based on energy, water, health and well-being, pollution, waste.

- Rated unclassified < 30%, pass > 30%, good > 45%, very good > 55%, excellent > 70%, outstanding > 85%

28

What is LEED?

- Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

- Widely used in the US, whereas BREEAM is more popular in the UK

- Based on Water efficiency, materials and resources, innovative design etc

- Rated certified, silver, gold, platinum

29

What is the SKA Rating?

- RICS environmental assessment method

- Created for non-domestic fit-out projects, rates sustainability of the fit-out separate from the base build

- Free online tool to help improve sustainability

30

What is a BMS?

- Building Management System

- BMS are computer based systems used to control and monitor building services

- Can optimise buildings performance, give better control, gather data, report, improve safety, decrease OPEX

- Can alert you when parameters are exceeded

- Intelligent BMS collates a range of info on one interface