Flashcards in Construction Technology Deck (163)
What is substructure?
All structure below the superstructure i.e. all structure below the ground including the ground floor bed.
What is superstructure?
All internal and external structure above the substructure.
What is meant by primary superstructure?
External walls, stairs, structural walls, roofs
What is meant by secondary superstructure?
Raised floors, suspended ceilings, balustrades, doors
What is meant by internal finishes?
Paint, tiles, carpet, stair nosing
What is the external envelope of a building?
The materials and components that form the external shell or enclosure of a building.
May be structural or non structural
What are the building regulations?
Statutory instruments that set out the minimum performance standards for the design and construction of buildings.
Supported by approved documents A - R & regulation 7.
Name the approved documents.
A - Structure
B - Fire safety
C - Site preparation and resistance to contaminants and moisture
D - Toxic substances
E - Resistance to the passage of sound
F - Ventilation
G - Sanitation, hot water safety and water efficiency
H - Drainage and waste disposal
J - Combustion applications and fuel storage systems
K - Protection from falling, collision and impact
L - Conservation of fuel and power
M - Access to and use of building
N - Glazing safety (withdrawn, ss by park K)
P - Electrical safety
Q - Security
R - Physical infrastructure for high speed electronic communication networks
Regulation 7 - Materials and workmanship
What are British Standards?
- Publications issued by British Standard Institution (BS)
- Give recommended minimum standards for materials, components, design and construction practices
What are International Standards?
- Prepared by International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO)
- Compliment BS
What are the typical components of site investigation?
Objective - to collect and record data to help in design & construction
Should include info of adjacent sites that impact:
- Boundary hedges/fencing
- Existing trees
- Size, depth and location of services
- Existing buildings
- Ground water conditions
- Soil investigations (trial pits)
What are soil investigations?
- Determine suitability of site for proposed works & adequate and economic foundation design
- Identify potential issues
What are the main site considerations for a contractor setting up on site?
- Access considerations, approach roads etc
- Storage considerations
- Temporary services
- Health and safety
What is a retained facade?
Facade of the building is retained whilst everything behind the front wall is demolished.
Why are facades retained?
- Often listed
What considerations would you make if you were to retain a facade?
- Temporary support structure
- Cleaning/restoration requirements of facade
What are temporary works?
- May not appear on construction drawings
- Methods that are required to ensure safe construction, e.g. propping. These will be removed once permanent supports are in place.
What is landfill tax?
- Brought in by govt. in 1996
- To reduce landfill waste and promote recycling/reuse, & promote research into waste practices
- Applies to all waste disposed of at licenced landfill sites unless specifically exempt
- Administered by hm customs and excise
What are the landfill tax rates?
£88.95/ tonne for active waste
£2.80/tonne for inactive (inert) waste
UK - 2018-19
What is active waste?
- Substances that either decay or contaminate land - which includes household waste.
- Expensive to dispose of.
What is inactive waste?
- Biologically or chemically inactive. Don't give out harmful residue.
- Do cause problems with filling up areas.
- Cheap to dispose of.
What is a tower crane?
- A tower crane is a tall crane used for lifting objects into high places.
- The boom (arm) allows a longer reach with 360 degree access.
- A longer boom reduces the payload capability.
How would you erect a tower crane?
Using a smaller crane
What issues might cause a tower crane to suspend it's use?
Adverse weather conditions, particularly high winds
What is a scaffold?
- Temporary working platform erected around the perimeter of a building or structure to provide a safe working place at a convenient height
- Usually required for working above 1.5m high
What is shoring?
- Form of support given to existing buildings.
- Precaution against damage or injury caused by collapse of structure.
What are hoists?
Designed for the vertical transportation of materials or people
What are foundations?
Foundations provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of rock and soil that have sufficient bearing capacity.
What is a dead load?
- Permanent and static loads
- Predominately the structure itself