Flashcards in Quantification and Costing of Construction Works Deck (169)
What is measurement?
The transformation of drawn information into descriptions and quantities, undertaken to value, cost and price construction work.
What are the different methods of measurement for a Cost Plan?
- Functional unit
- Floor area
- Approximate quantities
- Bill of quantities
What is the most commonly used standard of measurement?
What are the benefits of having a standard method of measurement?
- Provide structure for information
- Defines unit of measurement for different items, e.g. m, m2, m3, t
- Provides rules as to what is included within each item
- Defines terms used to avoid disputes
- Allows familiarity to development so measurement becomes quicker and easier
- Provides clear system of structuring other project information
What is SMM7?
Standard Methods of Measurement, superseded by NRM2
What is NRM1?
NRM1: Order of Cost Estimating and Cost Planning for Capital Building Works
NRM1 is a best practice guidance note offering guidance on the preparation of:
- Order of cost estimates
- Elemental cost models
- Cost plans
- Cost analyses
- Benchmark analyses
- Capturing historical cost data for order of cost estimates and elemental cost plans
- How to describe quantifying non-measurable items such as prelims, OH&P, fees, risk, inflation
How is NRM1 structured?
Part 1 - context and definitions
Part 2 - how to prepare an order of cost estimate
Part 3 -how to prepare an elemental cost plan
Part 4 - tabulated rules of measurement for preparing cost plans
What is NRM2?
NRM2: Detailed measurement for building works
NRM2 provides a set of detailed measurement rules for preparing a BoQ or schedules of rates for the purpose of obtaining a tender price.
It also deals with quantification of non-measurable work items, Contractor designed works and risks.
NRM2 also offers guidance on the content, structure and format of bills of quantities.
How is NRM2 structured?
Part 1: General - places measurement for works procurement in contrxt with RIBA PoW and OGC Gateway Process, explains symbols, abbreviations and definitions used in rules
Part 2: Rules for detailed measurement of building works - explains the function of BoQ, provides work breakdown structures for BoQ, defines information reqired to enable preparation of BoQ, describes key constituents of BoQ and how to prepare BoQ
Part 3: Tabulated rules of measurement for building works - comprises the majority of NRM2. Tabulated rules for measurement and description of building works.
What is in appendix A of NRM2?
Guidance on the preparation of BoQ
What is in Appendix A of NRM1?
Core definitions of GIA
What is in Appendix B of NRM1?
Commonly used functional units and functional units of measurement
What is in Appendix C of NRM1?
Core definitions of NIA
What is the RICS Code of Measurement Practice?
A guidance note that provides precise definitions to permit accurate measurement of buildings and land, the calculation of sizes, and description or specification of land and buildings on a common and consistent basis.
GEA, GIA, NIA, NSA
What is the GEA as defined in the Code of Measurement Practice and what does it include?
Gross External Area.
GEA is the area of a building measured externally at each floor level.
- Includes footprint of building (perimeter wall thickness, external projections)
- Includes internal balconies, columns, internal walls, lift rooms, horizontal floors below structural/stepped floors regardless of accessibility
- loading bays
- Areas with less headroom than 1.5m
What does GEA as defined in the Code of Measurement Practice exclude?
- External open-sided balconies, covered ways and fire escapes
- Open vehicle parking areas, roof terraces and the like
- Voids over or under structural structural, raked or stepped floors
What is the GIA in NRM and what does it include?
Gross Internal Area
- Areas occupied by internal walls and partitions
- Columns, piers, chimney breasts, stairwells, lift wells, vertical ducts and the like
- Structural, raked or stepped floors are to be
treated as a level floor measured horizontally
- Mezzanine floor areas with permanent access
- Service accommodation eg halls, toilets, changing rooms
- voids over stairwells and lift shafts on upper floors
- loading bays
- pavement vaults
- Atria and entrance halls, with clear height above,
measured at base level only
What does GIA in NRM exclude?
- Perimeter wall thicknesses and external
- External open-sided balconies, covered ways
and fire escapes
- Voids over or under structural, raked or
- Greenhouses, garden stores, fuel stores, and the
like in residential property
What functional unit of measurement would you use for car parks?
What unit of measurement would you use for measuring an office?
Cost/m2 of NIA
What unit of measurement may you use for schools?
What unit of measurement may you use for hospitals?
In the NRM, what is the definition of NIA and what does it include?
Net Internal Area
- Atria with clear height above, measured at
base level only
- Entrance Halls [in tenant area, not in common spaces]
- Notional lift lobbies and notional fire
- Built-in units, cupboards, and the like
occupying usable areas
- Ramps, sloping areas and steps within usable
- Areas occupied by ventilation/heating grilles
- Areas occupied by skirting and perimeter
- Areas occupied by non-structural walls
subdividing accommodation in sole occupancy
- Pavement vaults
What is excluded from NIA as defined in the NRM?
- Common areas such as hallways, landings, balconies
- Toilets, changing rooms, cleaners rooms and the like
- Lift rooms, plant rooms, tank rooms (other than
those of a trade process nature), fuel stores, and
- Stairwells, Liftwells
- Internal structural walls, walls enclosing excluded areas
- Columns, piers etc
- Area occupied by permanent and continuous air conditioning, heating or cooling apparatus and ducting if it renders the area unusable
- The space occupied by permanent, intermittent
air-conditioning, heating or cooling apparatus
protruding 0.25m or more into the usable area
- Area with headroom less than 1.5m
- Areas rendered substantially unusable by vir tue
of having a dimension between opposite faces of
less than 0.25m
- Vehicle parking areas
What is the build up to an Elemental Cost Plan recommended in NRM?
0 - Facilitating Works
1 - Substructure
2 - Superstructure
3 - Internal Finishes
4 - FF&E (Fittings, Furnishings and Equipment)
5 - Services
6 - Prefabricated units
7 - Works to existing building
8 - External Works
9 - Main Contractor Prelims
10 - Main Contractor OH&P
11 - Project Design Team Fees
12 - Other development/project costs (e.g. cost to acquire land, planning fees, insurances)
13 - Risk
14 - Inflation
Where can you find the formal requirements needed to produce a Cost Plan at different stages?
NRM1 Appendix F
What is IPMS?
International Property Measurement Standards
Property Measurement Standards that supersede NRM. Building function specific.
When was the first IPMS released?
2014 - IPMS: Office Buildings
When was the residential volume of IPMS released?