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Flashcards in Seizures Deck (9)
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What 3 key features are used to classify seizures?

1. Where seizure begins in the brain
2. Level of awareness during the seizure
3. length of seizure


What is the other name for a focal seizure, what is it, how are they classified?

Previously termed partial seizure.
Start on one side of the brain
- Focal aware (simple partial)
- Focal impaired awareness (complex partial)
- Awareness unknown

Can also be classified as being motor, non-motor or having other features such aura.


What are generalised seizures and its classification?

Involves both sides of the brain and consciousness is lost.
Divided into motor (tonic-clonic) or non-motor (absent)


Name the types of generalised seizures

tonic-clonic (starts tonic and turns clonic)
tonic (stiff body)
clonic (repeated jerking)
typical absence (petit mal)
myoclonic (brief rapid muscle jerk)
Atonic (no stiffness)


What is a secondary generalised seizure?

This is when the seizure goes from focal to generalised, so one side of the brain to both sides.


What is the treatment of generalised and focal seizures?

Sodium valproate - generalised
Carbamazepine - focal seizure


What antiepileptic mediation must be avoided in pregnant women?

Sodium valproate - it is teratogenic


What are the 4 common antiepileptics and their mechanism?

Sodium valproate - increases GABA
Carbamazepine - Binds Na channels increasing refractory period
Lamotrigine - sodium channel blocker
Phenytoin - same as carbamazepine


What is the acute management of seizures?

Give diazepam
If the patient continues it is status epilepticus and more benzos are needed, and a general anaesthetic might be needed (medical emergency)