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Flashcards in Seizures Deck (9)
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1

What 3 key features are used to classify seizures?

1. Where seizure begins in the brain
2. Level of awareness during the seizure
3. length of seizure

2

What is the other name for a focal seizure, what is it, how are they classified?

Previously termed partial seizure.
Start on one side of the brain
- Focal aware (simple partial)
- Focal impaired awareness (complex partial)
- Awareness unknown

Can also be classified as being motor, non-motor or having other features such aura.

3

What are generalised seizures and its classification?

Involves both sides of the brain and consciousness is lost.
Divided into motor (tonic-clonic) or non-motor (absent)

4

Name the types of generalised seizures

tonic-clonic (starts tonic and turns clonic)
tonic (stiff body)
clonic (repeated jerking)
typical absence (petit mal)
myoclonic (brief rapid muscle jerk)
Atonic (no stiffness)

5

What is a secondary generalised seizure?

This is when the seizure goes from focal to generalised, so one side of the brain to both sides.

6

What is the treatment of generalised and focal seizures?

Sodium valproate - generalised
Carbamazepine - focal seizure

7

What antiepileptic mediation must be avoided in pregnant women?

Sodium valproate - it is teratogenic

8

What are the 4 common antiepileptics and their mechanism?

Sodium valproate - increases GABA
Carbamazepine - Binds Na channels increasing refractory period
Lamotrigine - sodium channel blocker
Phenytoin - same as carbamazepine

9

What is the acute management of seizures?

Give diazepam
If the patient continues it is status epilepticus and more benzos are needed, and a general anaesthetic might be needed (medical emergency)