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Flashcards in Acute abdominal pain Deck (20)
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1

Name as many infective causes of abdominal pain (9)

Gastroenteritis
Appendicitis
Diverticulitis
Pyelonephritis
Cholecystitis
Cholangitis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Hepatitis
Pneumonia§

2

Name the two inflammatory causes of acute abdominal pain

Pancreatitis
Peptic ulcer disease

3

Name the 3 vascular conditions that lead to acute abdominal pain

ruptured AAA
mesenteric ischaemia
Myocardial infarction

4

Name 2 conditions caused by trauma which gives abdominal pain

Ruptured spleen
Perforated viscus (oesophagus, stomach, bowel)

5

Name 2 metabolic conditions that give acute abdominal pain

renal/ureteric stone
diabetic ketoacidosis

6

What are the symptoms and where would you find biliary colic?

right upper quadrant
Gallstone lodged in the bile duct, provoked by eating a fat meal. No fever or inflammation

7

What are the symptoms and where would you find acute cholecystitis?

Right upper quadrant
Inflammation/infection of the gallbladder secondary to impacted gallstones. Murpheys sign positive - pain on palpation on RUQ
Fever and raised inflammatory markers

8

What are the symptoms and where would you find ascending cholangitis?

Right upper quadrant
Ascending cholangitis is a bacterial infection of the biliary tree, usually caused by gall stones
Get Charcot's triad - RUQ pain, fever and jaundice

9

What are the symptoms and where would you find acute pancreatitis?

Epigastrium radiates to the back
Severe pain, tenderness, ileus and low-grade fever

10

What are the symptoms and where would you find a peptic ulcer disease?

Epigastrium
History of NSAID or excess alcohol use
Possible haematemesis seen

11

What is the distinguishing features of gastric and duodenal ulcers?

Duodenal - more common, the epigastric pain is relieved by eating
Gastric - epigastric pain is worsened by eating

12

What are the symptoms of appendicitis and where would find it?

right iliac fossa pain
Pain starts in the central abdomen before localising to the right iliac fossa pain
Anorexia, tachycardic, low grade pyrexia, tenderness are all common
Rovsing's sign: more pain in RIF than LIF when palpating the LIF

13

What are the symptoms of acute diverticulitis and where would you find it?

Lower left quadrant
Colicky pain
Diarrhoea, sometimes with blood
Fever raised inflammatory markers and white cells

14

What are the symptoms of intestinal obstruction and where would you find it?

Central pain
History of malignancy or previous operations
Vomiting, not opened bowels recently
Tinkling bowel sounds

15

What are the symptoms of renal colic and where would you find it?

Loin pain radiating to the groin
Severe but intermittent pain, characteristically restless patient, haematuria may be present

16

What are the symptoms of acute pyelonephritis and where would you find it?

Loin pain
Fever, rigours and vomiting

17

What are the symptoms of urinary retention and where would you find it?

Suprapubic pain
Caused by obstruction to the bladder outflow
Common in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

18

What are the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy and where would you find it?

Right or left iliac fossa, shoulder tip pain
Presents with pain, history of amenorrhoea for the past 6-9 weeks.
Vaginal bleeding may be present

19

what are the symptoms of ruptured AAA and where would you find it?

Central abdominal pain radiating to the back
History of cardiovascular disease, patients often in shock, the presentation could be sudden collapse or sub acute

20

What are the symptoms of mesenteric ischaemia and where would you find it?

Central abdominal pain
History of atrial fibrillation or other CVD
Metabolic acidosis is often seen due to dying tissue