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Flashcards in Anaemia Deck (17)
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1

What are the causes of megaloblastic anaemia?

Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate deficiency

2

What are the causes of normoblastic anaemia?

Alcohol
Liver disease
Hypothyroidism
Pregnancy
Reticulocytes
Myelodysplasia
Drugs: Cytotoxics

3

What are aplastic anaemia and features on blood count?

Is characterised by pancytopenia (deficient in all 3 blood cells) and a hypoplastic bone marrow
- normochromic and normocytic anaemia

4

What causes aplastic anaemia?

Idiopathic
Congenital - Fanconi anaemia
Drugs
Toxins: benzene
Infections: parvovirus, hepatitis
radiation

5

What are the causes of microcytic anaemia?

Iron-deficiency anaemia
Thalassaemia
Congenital sideroblastic anaemia
Anaemia of chronic disease
Lead poisoning

6

What is thalassaemia?

Group of inherited conditions that affect haemoglobin

7

What is polycythemia rubra vera?

Slow growing cancer where the body produces too many red blood cells. This leads to thickening of the blood.

8

What is the cause of normocytic anaemia?

Acute blood loss
Chronic kidney disease
Aplastic anaemia
Haemolytic anaemia
anaemia of chronic disease

9

What is the difference between normoblastic and normocytic anaemia?

Normoblastic - is the premature red blood cells in the blood supply.

10

Macrocytic anaemia can be divided into two causes, name them.

Normoblastic
Megaloblastic

11

What is pernicious anaemia?

It is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies affecting gastric parietal cells or intrinsic factor. This results in vitamin B12 deficiency

12

Treatment of pernicious anaemia?

B12 injections and possibly folic acid supplements

13

What is sideroblastic anaemia?

Red cells fail to completely form haem. Leads to deposits of iron in the mitochondria leading to a ring around the nucleus called a ring sideroblast.

14

Causes of sideroblastic anaemia?

can be congenital or acquired
- myelodysplasia (cancer)
- alcohol
- Lead
- Anti-TB medications

15

Diagnosis and treatment of sideroblastic anaemia?

Hypochromic microcytic anaemia, Bone marrow contains sideroblasts and increased iron stores

Treat the underlying cause and pyridoxine may help

16

What are the main causes of iron deficiency anaemia?

Excessive blood loss
Lack of iron in the diet
Poor intestinal absorption
High iron demand (children or pregnant women)

17

Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia

Oral ferrous sulfate
Iron-rich diet