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Flashcards in Review for Chapter 3 Deck (49)
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1

What is the principle of charity?

requires interpreting a speaker's statements to be rational and, in the case of any argument, considering its best, strongest possible interpretation.

Assuming the best in someone when they are making a claim or argument.

2

What is linguistic Ambiguity

something that is said or written that can be taken two ways.

I.e "The chickens are ready to eat."

Now they are either hungry and waiting for their food or they have reached the proper size/age when they are ready to be eaten.

3

What is an ambiguous sentence?

One that has two or more different but possibly quite precise meanings

4

What is a vague sentence?

One that lacks a precise meaning.

5

What is Referential ambiguity?

This is when a word or phrase could in the context of a particular sentence refer to two or more properties or things

6

What is grammatical Ambiguity?

This arises when the grammatical structure of a sentence allows two interpretations.

Tom Said I was hungry
Tom Said "I was hungry"

The above example illustrates how the above examples change who is the one saying their hungry

7

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

Billy gave his sisters a box of candy for Christmas

There is a referential ambiguity here since it is unclear whether the term his sisters is being used collectively or distributively. if it is used distributively, the sentence means that Billy gave two boxes of candy, one to each sister. if it is being used collectively, the sentence means that Billy gave his sisters one box of candy to be shared between them.

8

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

He's A chicken

Because chicken can be used metaphorically to characterize a cowardly person or literally to refer to a kind of bird, this sentence is referentially ambiguous.

9

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

Melissa Only has one Dress

There is a grammatical ambiguity in this sentence. literally, the sentence means that Melissa has nothing else in the world besides her one dress. if the location of the word only is changed to make the sentence read Melissa has only one dress, it means that although she may have many possessions, she has only one dress. This is the more likely meaning.

10

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

The General loses Battle with Nurses ( A newspaper headline)

The term General is referentially ambiguous. it could refer to a local hospital, in which case the sentence means that the nurses won their strike with the hospital. Or it could refer to a specific military officer, in which case the sentence means that the officer was beaten by the nurses in some kind of contest or struggle. in a town that has a local hospital that is routinely called The General, however, it will usually be clear which interpretation is best.

11

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

Conversational German is extremely difficult

if the term Conversational German is being merely mentioned, then it refers to a textbook or a course, and the sentence means that it is a difficult book or course. if the term is being used, then the sentence means that it is difficult to learn how to speak conversational german.

12

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

Children Need discipline to become responsible adults

The term discipline is referentially ambiguous. it could refer simply to corporal punishment, which is how some people use the term. But it could refer to a set of rules imposed by adults that children are expected to follow. it could also refer to self-discipline, that is, to a set of rules that children learn to develop for themselves. The meaning of the sentence is quite different depending upon which reference we choose.

13

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

If after you think it over, you still decide to drop out of school, I promise I won't say another word to you.

This is grammatically ambiguous. it is likely that the speaker is promising to drop this subject after the condition has been met, that is, if the person thinks over once again the plan to drop out of school. however, if we read the passage according to its literal meaning, there is another claim on the surface: the speaker promises he or she will never to speak to the person again if the condition is met. in most contexts, the principle of charity would require us to interpret the speaker as meaning ... I won’t say another word to you about dropping out of school.

14

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

In Multi-Sections Courses, the instructors should be free to choose the text.

The term instructors is referentially ambiguous. if it is being used collectively, the sentence means that the instructors, as a group, are free to choose whatever text they can all agree on. if the term is being used distributively, the sentence means that each instructor is free to choose whatever text he or she wishes.

15

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

Eighty percent of the stores tested illegally sell cigarettes to minors with no questions asked

The sentence is grammatically ambiguous. if illegally modifies tested the sentence means that the stores were illegally tested. if illegally modifies sell it means that the stores were illegally selling cigarettes.

16

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

She Arrived at the theater in a white limousine with a bright red hood

This sentence is grammatically ambiguous. if with a bright red hood modifies limousine the sentence means that the limousine has a bright redhood. But if with a bright redhood completes she arrived the sentence means that she was wearing a bright red hood.

17

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

The apartment superintendent came to our door during the party last night to complain about the noise in his pyjamas

This sentence is grammatically ambiguous. literally, it says that the noise the superintendent complained about was coming from his own pyjamas. however, the principle of charity encourages us to interpret the speaker as saying that the superintendent was wearing his pyjamas when he was complaining about noise coming from the apartment. The comic effect of the sentence depends on seeing the literal meaning and recognizing that the speaker intends us to interpret it as the principle of charity suggests.

18

Identify the kind of Ambiguity in the following sentence and state the different way in which it can be interpreted.

Tell me where she hit you

This sentence is referentially ambiguous. The speaker could be asking about where on the person’s body they were struck, or the speaker could be asking about where the person was at the time they were struck.

19

A statement that is true by definition would be called what?

An analytic Statement

20

A statement that is false by definition would be called a what?

A Contradictory Statement

21

What is a Synthetic Statement?

A statement whose truth or falsity is not solely Dependent upon the meaning of the words in it.

22

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

A full deck of playing cards contains 52 cards

analytic. if you know what a full deck of cards is, you know that it must have 52 cards. (Of course, a few card games require players to use the jokers, but this is a special case that would be cleared up by the speakers sorting out what is meant by full deck, not by counting cards.)

23

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

A yard is longer than a foot

analytic. Since a foot is defined as one-third of a yard, a foot is by definition shorter than a yard.

24

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

It is better to be free and unhappy than to be a contented slave

Synthetic. There is nothing about the meanings of the words in this sentence that guarantees its truth or falsity.

25

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

No one has ever run the marathon in less than two hours

Synthetic. The truth or falsity of this sentence can only be determined by checking a reference book on sports records. The meaning of the sentence leaves its truth or falsity an open question.

26

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

Death comes for us all sooner or later

Synthetic. as far as we know, this is a true statement. But its truth is something we have learned and is not determined by the meaning of the sentence.

27

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

I'm not saying that postal workers should not have the legal right to strike, but the postal service is so vital to the economy and postal strikes cause so much personal inconvenience to so many people that I think the government should enact legislation banning strikes in the post office.

Contradictory. The first clause in the sentence is contradicted by the last clause.

28

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

In the southern hemisphere the sun rises in the west and sets in the east

Synthetic. assuming that the speaker correctly understands the meanings of the words in this sentence, he or she could only be proven wrong by sending him or her to the southern hemisphere with a compass.

29

Determine if this Sentence is: Analytic, Synthetic, or Contradictory

All parents love their children when they are newborn

Synthetic. Observations would be needed to determine the truth of this statement.

30

Synthetic. Observations would be needed to determine the truth of this statement.

A rose by any other name would smell so swee

Synthetic, on both the literal and metaphorical interpretation. in both cases, the truth of the sentence could only be determined by investigating the facts.